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... "Is the study of the conditions necessary for the development of spontaneous activity of the individual, is the art of arousing joy and enthusiasm for the j ob. The interest that leads to a spontaneous activity is the real key psychologi cal "education. (...) He who tries to arouse interest in educating, leading to t ake action and follow it with all the energy, enthusiasm constructive, woke the man ".
The school teaching today increasingly need this enthusiasm constructive learnin g stimuli arousing passion for the study. This can be achieved by joining in the daily practice of teaching and learning, theories of two great scholars and tea chers: one Italian, Maria Montessori, the other American, Howard Gardner. To add ress this experience is therefore necessary to outline their theories.
The Montessori method is widespread and used in Italy and, especially, abroad, g reat respect for the rhythms of learning and great attention to the use of all s enses in learning. This results therefore in compliance with the different cogni tive styles of each student and at the same time, in stimulating the use of diff erent channels of perception that make learning founded in memory.
The basic principle of the Montessori method is freedom and the centrality of th e pupil, since only the freedom fosters creativity. But freedom must emerge from the discipline that has its limits in the public interest.
Maria Montessori observed that the infant period was a period of enormous creati vity, is a stage in life where the mind of the child absorbs the characteristics of the environment acting on them and without having to make special efforts co gnitive. This is possible because every child through this method has provided m aterial and learning tools that match their stage of development. Stages of chil d development according to the educator are outlined as:
from 0 to 3 years: the child has an absorbent mind, his intelligence work uncons ciously absorbing any given environment. In this phase form the essential struct ures of personality. from 3 to 6 years during which begins pre-school education. The absorbent mind is associated with the conscious mind. The child needs to lo gically organize the mental contents absorbed.
t and then sensory linguistic and logical-mathematical dell'apprendente.
1.2 THE TEACHING MATERIAL
The course material is based on principles defined by the psychological point of
educational materials analytical focus on a single quality item, for example, we ight, shape and size. Educates the senses in isolation. self-corrective teaching materials, educates the child to correct the error and control without the inte
Montessori also designed materials for learning arithmetic, geometry, music and of course, for writing and reading. Here it was considered more important to mak e mention of the material to learn these skills.
Among the materials created for learning to read labels indicating different obj ects or actions to match the real object thumbnail, or image corresponding to dr amatize with your body.
For writing Maria Montessori created movable alphabet letters grinder (for the s timulation of kinesthetic memory) by the vocal characteristics of red and blue c onsonants (for the stimulation of visual memory through color).
Learning grammar and logic of the analysis prepared by boxes with the color code d cards divided into several sections (black name, the word red, etc.) so as to observe the correlation between all'apprendente article name, unique and plural, masculine and femininevisual and kinesthetic memory by exercising and strength ening the concept of function of parts of speech.
The Montessori learning environment poses special attention because he claimed t hat, if placed in a suitable environment, scientifically organized and prepared with care, each learner, according to its interior design and development of kno wledge, automatically activates its interest in learning , to complete the activ ities started to test their strength, to measure and control. He therefore prepa re furniture and child-friendly classes with material ready to hand because pupi ls could choose freely and independently. In the Montessori classroom rewards an d punishments are also banned. The first is concerned because if the child does not need an award to remember their abilities and second because the child might not have found disturbing activity which meets, and will be invited to reflect on that and choose a different task .
The teacher's task is to organize the environment: it must ensure that children focus on a particular material, then the observation of individual behavior. The teacher is thus a connection point between the material and the child. This mak es possible a real individualization of work that becomes adapted to the abiliti es and needs of each. The teacher helps the child to lead to development that mu st take place according to natural rhythms and according to the personality that each individual shows.
Free labor is the activity dall'apprendente. Everyone can decide to perform exer cises by choosing one of the many boxes of grammar, the sensory material or work sheets from previously prepared by the teacher and placed neatly in appropriate containers within the class. With this system of working children are aware of c onstructing their own knowledge, to integrate new information to those already h eld, click and explore strategies, including alternatives to master a concept, a mathematical operation, a text. Their work is deeply personal, experienced and they reach their true identity and autonomy. Interest, activity and effort are t he characteristics of spontaneous labor and self-education in which the child is immersed with enthusiasm and love, revealing and constructing. "Help me do it m
yself" is not just a slogan Montessori teaching, but a question posed by the nat ure of the child. The educator's task is to free the learner from what hinders t he natural pattern of development, their intellectual growth.
The father of the famous theory of "multiple intelligences" is Howard Gardner, w ho, with his theory, he tried to create a supportive learning environment for th e learning experience was meaningful, engaging and respectful of different learn ing styles and minds of everyone. Gardner tried to suggest to teachers how to de velop the minds of students, teach them critical thinking and creative and test their learning in order to promote further interest in the discovery and study. This is also a way to put the learner at the center of the educational process w hile respecting the individual differences in perceiving the world, internalize and express it through their point of view and sensitivity. Gardner believes tha t it is simplistic to think of a concept of intelligence related only logicomate matica or linguistic area, normally used for teaching and learning at school, so he theorizes different action areas of intelligence indicating that the categor ization of eight nine principal intelligence designed by him is not final, since he could see more in the future, and that this separation is used only for conv enience of study, as almost always intelligences interact with each other.
Gardner claims that all possess and can develop and expand the ability to use di fferent intelligences and, if conditions favor learning, some individuals can st eal all intelligences but with different percentages of preference. Others may d evelop some more obvious, and others, even if not all, with satisfactory levels of competence. The main intelligences outlined by the student are as follows:
Linguistic intelligence: involves the ability and mastery of syntax, phonology a nd semantics (oral and written). Logical-mathematical intelligence: it provides a particular attitude in solving calculations, logical processes, principles and relationships. Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence: it involves manual skills (buil d, produce and make things) coordination, expression of feelings through the bod y. Intelligence, visual-spatial skills include visual perception of color, form, space, sense of direction, graphic sense; perception from different angles. Mus ical intelligence: it provides a particular sensitivity to auditory memory and d iscrimination, recognition, the creation and playback of sounds, tones and rhyth ms of speech and vocal or instrumental means. Intrapersonal intelligence: abilit y to self-discipline, awareness of their feelings, intentions and desires, menta l concentration. Interpersonal Intelligence: ability to communicate verbally and nonverbally, to perceive the feelings of others, ability to work cooperatively in groups. Naturalistic intelligence: sensitivity to nature, flora, fauna and th e environment in general, the ability to take care of living things and classify them (plants, animals, etc.)..
In addition to these intelligences, Gardner later assumed additional intelligenc e, the existential which provides a capacity of abstract reasoning and reflectio n on the themes of existence.
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