MODERNISM AND GENERATION 98 s. At the end of XIX Spain is experiencing a general crisis: the turnismo political, social gaps and violent social conflicts cause the onset of regeneration, as Joaquín Costa, Francisco Giner de los Rios or Ange l Ganivet. The situation is critical of the Disaster of '98. Then comes a group of writers concerned with the issue of Spain: the Generation of '98. Alongside t hem, the modernists, whose movement as Juan Ramon Jimenez was one of enthusiasm and freedom to beauty. 98 Generation born between 1864 and 1875. They come from the bourgeoisie, but take an anti-bourgeois position in its first stage, and cri ticize the Spanish education system. Among them there was no clearly defined gui de (have been proposed Nietzsche, Schopenhauer and Unamuno). Participate in some joint events such as visits to the tomb of Larra or strong protest against the granting of the Nobel Echegaray. The skepticism and pessimism are common feature s. They are concerned about religious and existential issues, especially the iss ue of Spain. Larra admire, Quevedo and Cervantes. Are proud of his sobriety and concise in their writing, and give more weight to the idea that the expression ( they are anti-rhetorical.) Stresses his subjectivism in all his writings, and le ad to innovations in literary (Unamuno and nivola, and Valle-Inclán and absurdit y). They belong to that group Miguel de Unamuno, José Martínez Ruiz 'Azorín, Pío Baroja and Ramiro de Maeztu. Traditionally are included Ramón María del Valle-I nclan and Antonio Machado, but these are different outcomes. Modernism involves the reappearance of the sentimental themes of European Romanticism. It comes to poetry to remember the happy moments spent. Started "officially" by Ruben Dario in 1888 with his work Blue, is the integration of several trends, in particular of Symbolism (intimate) and Parnasianism (grand) French. It is a syncretic liter ature, as we turn to various sources, including Walt Whitman, Edgar Allan Poe, t he British pre-Raphaelites, the decadence, Gonzalo de Berceo, Jorge Manrique ... Modernism Parnassian (canonical) Its ultimate purpose is art for art, beauty. I ssues stand out as escapism (dream to escape from reality into the past, with el ements of classical mythology), cosmopolitanism (Paris as the capital of moderni sm), the romantic malaise (melancholy), love and eroticism (delicate and unbridl ed love) American themes (in Latin America, reviving Indian myths), the Hispanic (as opposed to American). On the way, look for the sensory effects (synesthesia ) and the wealth of poetic language and renewal of the metric. Symbolist moderni sm
The essential thing is the suggestion and the evocative power of words. The esca pe is toward the inner world of the poet, and after that, the writer turns her e yes to the real world. The Spanish writers generally make up this line of modern ist. Metrics modernist experimentation and innovation. Alexandrine verses are us ed, and eneasílabos dodecasyllabic. Developments are introduced in stanzas, like the sonnets in Alexandrine with serventesios, sonetillos (art minor), silva (co mbination of rhyming verses to suit the poet, in five syllables and eneasílabos) heptasyllables romances, and heroic verse eneasílabos, verse free and attempts to create a poem in metrical feet like ours. Lyric early s. XX poet Rubén Darío all kinds of subjects. It is the poet of love and eroticism. His works stand out as Blue (1888, beginning of modernism, a variety of rhythms and meters, eleganc e and sensuality) Prosas profane (musicality of verse, poetry, precious, exotic and fantasy refined aesthetic concerns and sensuality), Songs of Life and Espera nza (intimate, serious themes and very bitter at times, criticized U.S. imperial ism). It is the leading modernist poet. Maximize the originality, the renewal me asure, formal perfection, aristocratic vocabulary, musicality and preciousness. Juan Ramón Jiménez Three stages in production: - Phase sensitive (up to 1916 (Di ary of a newly married poet)): two moments: their first books, plays sad Becquer and the influence of French symbolist (Arias sad, distant or Elegies Gardens) a nd a second time when modernist themes are treated staff (La Soledad sound, Maji c and suffering Poems, Poems wild, Spiritual Sonnets and summer. In prose Plater o and I write.) - intellectual stage (until 1936): conceptual and complex poetry . Diary of a newly married poet, eternity and stone and sky are poems in which y ou want to rename things to give purity. Sea boasts a symbol, representing life, loneliness, the longing for eternity. - Stage sufficient, Animal God background
and desired and desiring. Obsessed with eternity, transcendence in his work. In his style reflects the beauty (search and expression of beauty), knowledge (to deepen the real being of things, using the symbol) and the longing for eternity. Antonio Machado
d Other Poems (1907): there are reforms in the poems, removes and adds more mode rnist. This is the passage of time, melancholy, God and death. They emphasize th e symbols of the evening and the source, time concepts. Campos de Castilla (1912 ): subjective descriptions of landscapes that show the state of mind, a critical attitude towards the Spanish problems. Spend Leonor written. There is an approa ch to the generation of 98
It will be increasing social criticism. He also wrote plays and prose (The Lola is going to ports or Juan de Mairena). As matters stand time (reflected in symbo ls), loneliness, sleep (as form of knowledge), the love evoked (Leonor, Guiomar and lack of love) and God (crisis of faith and meditation on its existence). The symbol is fundamental to his style, as the afternoon (melancholy), or water clo ck (time). Its simplicity gives formal essentiality and simplicity to his work. Alexandrian poems abound and silva-romance. Narrative: novel noventayochistas af forded by the Generation of 98, are moved by the theme of Spain (after the war c risis in Cuba and the Philippines, Castilla is proposed as a representation of t he purity of the Spanish soul) and an existential concern (philosophical backgro und is religious problematic). Miguel de Unamuno successfully cultivated almost all genres. In his essays reflects on the meaning of life and the hereafter (God , immortality, etc.. Do not believe in progress, because it does not solve the p roblem of the existence of God) and concern for Spain (evolves from a desire to reform for a contrary view). In his novels are given the same subjects. Lack of approach and outcome, and so little resemblance to those of his time, which led to a critique of the romantic essence of his works. Therefore, the author called them Nivola. Three stages: - Until 1897, the year of its worst religious crisis . Lose faith and began his existential conflicts. Progressive stage of socialist ideology. Still believe in science and progress. - 1897-1914: the religious obs ession. Negative concept of progress. Anguish, reason vs. faith, concern for imm ortality (Love and Pedagogy). - 1914-1936: Nivola. Fog, Aunt Tula and San Manuel Bueno, Martyr. Pio Baroja Its production consists almost entirely of novels. Pr oduction is divided into two phases: - Before 1912: stage prolific and varied. H e writes his best work (Way of Perfection and The Tree of Knowledge). They built archetypal etopeyas (description of the customs and moral traits
He viewed the novel as a genre open admitting many different techniques. His wor ks lack of action, are novels of character, because everything revolves around t he protagonist who evolves into a predictable failure. His style is precise and restrained, although the measure involves a simple processing. It handles with e ase the impressionistic description, dialogue and a bitter black humor. Short ph rases abound low subordination and conversational style. Do not use too many fig ures of speech. Influenced authors such as Camilo José Cela and Luis Martín Sant os. José Martínez Ruiz 'Azorín "Agrees with the same evolution disenchanted with most of his contemporary writers. His style is characterized by the purity and accuracy, the accuracy and very short sentence and forceful, strong-willed impre
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