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mechanical maintenance, start the disassembly of a mechanical assembly, found th at there were a series of bearings. Examining the bearings, found that some were defective hopeless, while others were in good condition. Defective bearings had to be replaced. That the mechanical maintenance procedures should take to repla ce the defective bearings without damaging those who are in good condition? How to avoid damage to the bearing housing? In this lesson we will learn to verify a nd dismantle mechanical assemblies called roller bearings.
Concept of bearing
Bearing is a support strut shaft and bearings which are elements of rotating mac
hinery. The bearings are classified into two categories: sliding bearings and ro
ller bearings. Sliding bearings - are depressions in which the ends of an axle s
tand. For example, in the following figure, the two existing hollows in the bloc
ks where the ends of the axle support bearings are sliding.
Roller bearings - are those that involve balls or rollers in which the axle rest s. When the shaft rotates, the balls or rollers rotate also confined within the bearing. For example, if we put balls or rollers inserted between a shaft and a block, as shown along the axis will roll over the balls or rollers.
Now a question: - When using ball bearings or roller? It can be said that the ba ll bearings are used for light or medium loads, and roller bearings for medium o r heavy loads. For example, on bicycles and motorcycles, which support light loa ds, the hubs of the wheels have ball bearings. In trucks, bearing heavy loads, t he wheel hub have roller bearings. Already in cars, which support medium loads, the wheel hub may have ball bearings or roller.
Types of bearing
The types of bearings constructed to support loads acting perpendicular to the a
xis, such as wheel hub bearings, for example, are called radial bearings.
The bearings designed to withstand loads acting in the direction of the axis are called thrust bearings. A thrust bearing can be used, for example, to support t he thrust of the screw propeller of a ship. Many types of radial bearings are ca pable of, too, combined loads, ie, radial and axial loads.
Application of bearings
The arrangement of bearings in a machine element, can be done in several ways. I
t is common to use two bearings spaced at a distance. These bearings can be hous
ed in the same box or in two separate boxes, the choice being made based on mach
ine design and feasibility of using less expensive boxes.
In certain types of machine, the bearings are mounted directly on their bodies. The reducers are one example. In such cases, the machine manufacturer must desig n and produce caps and nuts, as well as designing the system for sealing and lub rication.
In other applications, instead of the spin axis, other elements of machine is tu rning on him, which remains stationary. This is the case of pulleys or rollers n ot disconnected.
How to check the conditions of a bearing
The behavior of the bearing can be checked by touch and hearing. To check the pr
ocess of turning, it is turning the rolling slowly by hand. This procedure will
verify if the movement is produced with effort or not, and whether it occurs in
a uniform or uneven. In checking the hearing, it is run with a number of bearing
revolutions reduced. If the operator heard a rasping sound, like a buzz, it's b
ecause the tracks of the roller are dirty and if the sound you hear is noisy, th
e track for damage or stripping if the sound heard is metallic, type ping, a sig
n of small gap or lack of lubrication. Verification by the ear can be improved b
y placing a stick or a screwdriver against the housing where the bearing. Leanin
g my ear to the free end of the stick or the handle of the screwdriver, or using
an electronic stethoscope, the types of sound can be detected easily.
Besides the noise, another factor to be observed is the temperature in the beari ngs. The temperature can be checked by means of digital thermometers are sensiti ve to infrared. Another way to check the temperature of a bearing is to apply ch alk sensitive or simply put your hand on the bearing housing.
If the temperature is higher than normal or suffer constant changes, this means that there is a problem in the bearing. The problem can be: poor lubrication · e xcess lubrication · presence of dirt, · overloading · very small internal cleara nce · early wear · bearing "stuck" axially · excess pressure in the retainers · heat from external source. We stress that there is a natural increase in tempera ture during one or two days after the correct lubrication of a bearing. Other po ints that should be inspected on a bearing are: seals, the lubricant level and h is status for the presence of impurities.
Inspection of bearings in machines
Inspection of bearings in machinery must be done with the machines stops to prev
ent accidents. The following sequence of operations should be done during the in
spection of a bearing: a) Clean the external surfaces and record the sequence of
removal of machine components.
ad on the back of the hand allow for visual inspection.
c) to prevent dirt and moisture from entering the machine, after the removal of
caps and seals. In case of interruption of work, protect the machine, bearings a nd seats with waxed paper, plastic or similar material. The use of tow is repreh ensible, as lint can contaminate the bearings.
e) Dry the bearing washed with a clean lint-free cloth or compressed air. If com pressed air is applied, make sure that no component of the bearing from rotating . Shielded bearings (two with shields or seals) should never be washed.
Procedures for removal of bearings
Before starting the disassembly of a bearing is recommended as a first step, mar
king the relative position of assembly, or mark the side of the bearing that is
up and the side faces and, particularly, selecting the right tools.
Let's see how it's done to dismantle the shaft bearings with interference, inter fering in the box and mounted on bushings. Disassembly of bearing with the shaft interference Disassembly of bearing with interference on the shaft is made with a bag-pulleys. The jaws of this tool should be supported directly in the face o f the inner ring.
When we can not reach the surface of the inner ring, the bag-pulleys should be a pplied to the face of the outer ring, as shown below. However, it is important t hat the outer ring is rotated during disassembly. This precaution will ensure th at efforts are distributed into lanes, avoiding the rolling elements (balls or r ollers) the mark. In operation, the screw should be locked or remain safe for a key. The claws are to be rotated by hand or with the aid of a lever.
In the absence of a bag-belt pulleys, one can use a punch of iron or relatively soft metal with a rounded tip, or another similar tool. The puncture should be a pplied to the face of the inner ring. The bearing should not, under any circumst ances, receive direct blows of the hammer. This method requires great care, ther e are risks of damaging the bearing and shaft.
Disassembly of bearing with interference when the box has the bearing interferen ce fit in the box, like a wheel, it can be disassembled with the help of a piece of metal tube with flat faces and free of burrs. One end of the tube is support ed on the outer ring, while the free end receiving hammer blows. The blows shoul d be given throughout the free end of the tube.
If there are bumps between the bearings, you should use a punch of iron or relat
Disassembly of bearings mounted on bushings bearings or spherical roller balls a re usually fitted with anchor bolts. These bushings have the advantage of easy a ssembly and disassembly of bearings, since the shaft seat, with the use of these bushings, passes not require the precision processing.
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