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The spot pubblcitario: notes for semiological analysis

The spot pubblcitario: notes for semiological analysis

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Published by: 4gen_4 on Jul 08, 2010
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Pier Cesare Rivoltella THE SPOT ADVERTISING: NOTES FOR semiological analysis [in R. Giannatelli, PC Revolver (ed.), Teleducation, Elledici, TorinoLeumann 1994, pp. 249-268]

Advertising, perhaps it is safe to support him, was born in Greece several centu ries before the birth of Christ and specifically in the sale of slaves. During t his period, in fact, beginning to make their ads appear, perhaps in rhyme, which magnify the qualities of those auctions. From now on, the development of the ph enomenon is continuous: Rome and Carthage are introduced signs outside the shops , which attract passersby with analog images, the specialty of the owner - pigs or wild boars, for example, to distinguish a tavern in the Middle Ages, says the brand, such as quality assurance of a certain type of goods, yet, in seconds. X VIXVII, with the discovery of printing with movable type, the phenomenon can be leveraged to scale and intensity. `But it is only 900, with the advent of mass m arketing, advertising that the universe is imposed by force, economic, as an ind ispensable strategy for product marketing, in media like real new" genre " commu nicative, social, as a means to induce or modify behavior. What leads to such bl atant advertising growth in our own century? What brings you to carve out a plac e in the collective that is increasing in the budgets of businesses Three, it se ems to say, are the possible causes of the phenomenon (1). First, the economic b urden that has been gaining publicity (2) also report increased business product ivity, the necessity of their development and increased competitiveness driven b y the proliferation of brands, the decline in sales personnel, the inevitable in crease in average per capita income and product standardization. Secondly, its s ocial importance, be considered in conjunction with the growth of the middle cla ss and the progress of literacy. Importance that lets you adjust for the number of people who depend directly or indirectly financially BY advertising, and the ability that advertising has to create or help to raise significant collective b ehavior "(3). Finally, "its political importance: as an instrument to ensure plu rality of voices in the media landscape. It is no coincidence that advertising c ompanies flourish in permissive and that, conversely, the transition to authorit arian regimes is accompanied by a heavy schedule of 'economy and a consequent re duction of advertising "(4). So, advertising, by this time as a concept in Weste rn society, literally explodes in the `900 gaining a prominent place at differen t levels and assist us in recent years the development of advertising organizati ons

specialist and an unprecedented increase in research in this area. And 'here tha t cuts the space of our reflection. It meets two needs, one cognitive, the other teacher. It proposes, first, to understand this explosion of "advertising" and "enter" the phenomenon by watching rather than as a complex socio-economicoprodu ttivo (see about the beautiful pages of Hadrian Zanacchi) as a form of communica tion (which is the 'cognitive demand). Clearly, then, that question on that part icular form of communication is advertising, it also means questioning on what c an be done because the meeting's (especially the child) with it is the most prod uctive and constructive as possible (in this meet the other requirements, the te aching staff). Now, if the advertising is communication and as such has the fund amental objective to influence or justify the reasons for the public, will be cr ucial, in view of an educational approach to the media, gain control of the disc ursive strategies within the message triggered same for that outcome. Here, then , that some questions become unavoidable: What determines the encounter with the advertisement? What are the effects of continuing with it? How to communicate, since communication is it? What structures, strategies, player-model it is built ? The instrument we chose to use to provide an answer to these respondents semio tic type. We will try to put in place by moving some of the contributions of str uctural semiotics (5), analysis of the film (6) hermeneutics of text and spectac ular (7). Be finally retrieved the two limits and preferential attention to our contribution. It will, first,€principally in the case of television advertising is the most pervasive, with which we do daily accounts. Logical to assume that t he model, although in doing so (and this is the first limit of the survey) do no

t necessarily take into account other forms, however attractive, to advertising (radio, in print, ads, etc.. ). Still, there you will find a truly original scie ntific contribution and in respect of a possible image advertising semiotics (th e second limit mentioned before): the task would require more space and effort. You should rather welcome as an indication of a workable model which can certain ly - for a critical approach to advertising imagery, especially television. And here lies our preferential attention, namely the attempt to develop, with our in tervention, a grid using a methodology that allows for teaching of the advertise ment. To this end was reserved enough space to display complete analysis of spot advertising.

1. The advertising message: a methodology of analysis
2As we saw in the narrative, each analysis of a text is essentially a process of

decomposition, in which, through a process "elementarizzante" instrumentation an
d a semiotic one possession of constituent structures of the text itself, which
is necessarily followed by a process consolidation, through a process in which "
generalizing" (8) and moving from a structural perspective previously earned pro
ceed to work more closely interpretation (9), a work in which, beyond its photog
raphs semiological terms, is 'hermeneutic horizon analyst to come into play and
interact with the material made available by the work of decomposition. The anal
ysis of advertising text, just as it is a text, neither more nor less than it is
a drama or the news (despite the obvious differences), there seems to make exce
ptions, and make them available to a 'analysis which is manifested in a similar
pattern. This pattern seems to us divided into four moments which are also the s
tages through which the analysis must necessarily pass: 1. the vision and the gr
aphical transcription of the text, 2. analysis of graph-visual codes operate in
it, 3. analysis of verbal codes, 4. Finally, reading the message. The first thre
e stages of joint damage at the time that we called "decomposition" Error. The o
riginal reference was not found., While the latter gives rise to the process of
"consolidation". Let us see them in explaining the specific operation. 1.1. The
mandatory screening and transcription graphical boot time analysis of an adverti
sement, like any other audio-visual text, is obviously the screening of the text
itself. And when it comes to screening of the text means "a naive vision and em
otional" but an examination "as a prelude to an analysis in depth, requires a go
od dose of critical detachment and a spirit of observation" (10) and that should
be repeated "at least two or three times, first to have overall impressions and
subsequent to capture specific elements of the staging" (11). Not only. Where p
ossible - and that in the case of advertising is, unfortunately, difficult - sho
uld be accompanied, accompany this vision with the collection of material parate
xt, that is all that is on the text in question, located "around" (Para) to and
it is functional for its better use and understanding. Material of this kind, wi
th regard to advertising, may be information on how to campaign by the agency en
trusted with, any reviews of magazines or daily on the campaign itself (headings
"review advertising" can be found all journals with national or trade magazines
, not to mention that some "launch" triggered and trigger
3continuing debate among non-specialists, as happens regularly in the margin of c

ampaigns for Benetton, Oliviero Toscani, etc.). Dual use of this information: on the one hand they infuse with the screening of the spot, in the construction of pre-understanding from which to undertake the actual work of interpretation, th e other element will be valid for comparison and verification conclusions reache d after analysis. Carefully viewed the spot and brought the material paratextual , will provide for a transcript graphics, full and faithful of the text,€In this case, the spot that you chose to take an object of study. But what is meant by transcript (or description) of an audiovisual? It is not the case here, to open a parenthesis on the scientific definition of this theoretical problem, the most discussed in the semiological debate (12). We can simply say that "the descript

ion / transcription of a text can be understood as the transcoding of the text t hrough which the complexity and expressive Test Code spectacular one-dimensional ity of the system is reduced to graph-verbal" (13). In other words, it is a meth odology that allows to translate into verbal symbols and the audiovisual complex reality, making it available for analysis. As is, the image, unlike the written page is not fully available to the viewer, because running, gradually becomes p resent and again escapes to the observer, we must devise a system to ensure cont inued and allow pads in the margin that it does not rely solely on visual memory , but can be detected with the highest fidelity possible: this system is its gra phic transcription. But concretely, what is the transcript of a text graphic aud iovisual? Procedurally, what does? The work of transcription is relatively simpl e and consists of two columns report on all the audio elements that characterize every single shot. Of each shot, ie, a statement in the column of remarks, vide o, numbering, time-space coordinates (day / night, outdoor / indoor), the type o f coloring, the type of picture, what you are see happen, any camera movement an d the type of connection that binds with the compilation of previous and subsequ ent. All this must be integrated, audio level, the faithful transcription of the dialogue and music and records relating to the possible noise. All these findin gs can easily see in the diagram below.

TABLE 1 - Transcript of a text audiovisual-------------------------------------
----- -------------------------------------------------- ----4

1. number of frame 2. duration (in min. and sec.) 3. color image a. color (color
changes of light) b. black and white (b / w) and its gradations 4. spatiotempor
al description of the situation: IG = Internal E.G. days = External I.N. days =
Internal night E.N. = External night 5. type of framework: CL = CLL = long range
long shot CM = mean field TOT = total = PART THAT particular detail = PPP = PP
= the foreground foreground MPP = MCU MF = FI = full-length half-length PA = Ame
rican plan 6. profilmic description (ie the reality shown in the frame) which in
cludes the machine movements, summarized as follows: Panoramic since. ← to ds. →
, vs. up ↑ vs. ↓ low dolly carts, steadicam, etc.. 7. kind of detachment between
shots, if the net is not indicated if it is fading, is indicated with an X in b
ed or cut a straight line (in the case of fondu)

1. Dialogues 2. music 3. noise
With this, the first time of decomposition can be said complete.
51.2. The major codes graph visual-graphic transcription, which has just been sho

wn a viable model, is part of his analytic practice as a significant moment, but evidently does not exhaust the interpretive work, rather, just do not even star t. Graphically transcribed the spot in question allows some to work on better, b ut in fact does not mean he had mastered its constitutive structure, nor of disc ursive strategies to activate it. In this direction allows us to work, however, the second time of decomposition, what we call a convenience survey of graph-vis ual codes and from which it can move the analysis of the advertisement when it t akes a different form from that of TV commercial (14). Let's see what it is. Ass umed the very important concept code (15) and without going into the complex pro blem of many types that you can provide, we can say that this second time (and t hird) of our analysis consists precisely in the relief of the codes to operate ' internal advertisement in question. These codes let you adjust the level of a d ouble register: the visual and verbal. Begin to provide the first. Are basically two categories of so-called visual codes: codes of perception-figurative and na rrative codes and assembly. The first, according to Umberto Eco (16), can articu late at least three levels of coding.€The first is the iconic level. It collects most of the elements of grammar iconic classic. Codes are iconic in this sense,

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