Course of photovoltaic solar energy, electricity that comes from the sun
I-Introduction II-physical composition and manufacture of photovoltaic devices C
oncepts III-IV-electrical characteristic curves of photovoltaic cells V-configur
ation of production systems, photovoltaic VI-sizing of production systems, photo
voltaic and battery banks VII-Connections and Sizing VIII-conductors and cables
installation and maintenance
A production system is an electro-solar energy source through the use of photovo
ltaic cells, convert light energy directly into electricity. Key advantages:
It does not consume fuel produces no pollution or environmental contamination is silent has a useful life exceeding 20 years is resistant to extreme weather con ditions (hail, wind, temperature and humidity) have no moving parts and therefor e requires little maintenance (only cleaning panel) allows to increase the insta lled capacity through the incorporation of additional modules
Main applications: It is generally used in areas away from mains electricity and can work independently or in combination with conventional power production sys tems. Its main applications are:
110/220V AC: Beyond the foregoing, between the batteries and consumption will ne ed to install an inverter chain with adequate power. The inverter converts direc t current (DC) batteries into alternating current (AC). Most household appliance s use alternating current.
This course was originally published by Panorama Energy. Translated, adapted and
reproduced by AMERLIS with permission of the authors. The RETScreen, Canada, pr
oduced a software to produce photovoltaic projects. If you want this software CL
ICK HERE to make the download (1721 k bytes). It's free. If you prefer the softw
are in French go directly to the website of RETScreen.
II-physical composition and manufacture of photovoltaic devices
Photovoltaic effect: The modules are composed of silicon solar cells. They are s
emiconductors of electricity as silicon is a material with characteristics inter
mediate between a conductor and an insulator. The silicon is presented usually a
s sand. Through appropriate methods to obtain silicon in pure form. The crystal
of pure silicon has no free electrons and thus is a poor electrical conductor. T
o change this add up percentages of other elements. This process is called dopin
g. By doping silicon with phosphorus is obtained a material with free electrons
or material with a negative charge carriers (N-type silicon). Performing the sam e procedure, but adding boron instead of phosphorus, one obtains a material with opposite characteristics, ie deficit of electrons or positively charged materia l free (P-type silicon). Each solar cell is composed of a thin layer of N type m aterial and one with a thicker P-type material (see Figure 2). Separately, both covers are electrically neutral. But by being united in marriage exactly PN, gen erates an electric field due to electrons from the N-type silicon that occupy th e voids of the structure of P-type silicon
Figure 2 When you focus the light onto the photovoltaic cell, photons belonging to it are in conflict with the electron structure of silicon giving them energy and turning them into piles. Due to the electric field generated in the union PN , electrons are driven and flow layer "P" layer to the "N".
Through an outer conductor, connects the negative to the positive layer. Geras t hus a flow of electrons (electric current) connection. As the light continues to focus on the cell, the flow of electrons will remain. The intensity of the curr ent generated will vary proportionately as the intensity of incident light. Each photovoltaic module is formed by a certain amount of cells connected in series. As seen above, to join the negative layer of a cell with the following positive , the electrons flow through the conductors from one cell to another. This flow is repeated until the last cell of the module, which flows into the accumulator or battery.Each electron which leaves the module is replaced by another who ret urns the accumulator or battery. The interconnection between cable and battery m odule contains the flow, so that when an electron leaves the last cell of the mo dule and forwards to the battery another electron enters the first cell from the battery. That is why it is considered an inexhaustible photovoltaic device. Pro duces electricity in response to light energy that goes into it. It should be no ted that a photovoltaic cell can not store electricity. Cell types: There are th ree types of cells, according to the method of manufacture.
e crystal silicon grown in special furnaces. The cells are obtained by cutting t he bars into discs square thin (0.4-0.5 mm thick). Their efficiency in convertin g sunlight into electricity is more than 12%. Silicon policristinalino: These ce lls are produced from blocks of silicon melt bits of pure silicon in special mol ds. Once the molds, silicon cools slowly and solidifies. In this process, the at oms are not organized in a single crystal. Form a structure with polycrystalline surfaces of separation between the crystals. Its efficiency in converting sunli ght into electricity is slightly smaller than in single crystal silicon. Amorpho us Silicon: These cells are obtained through the deposition of very thin layers of silicon on glass or metal surfaces. Its efficiency in converting sunlight int o electricity ranges between 5% and 7%.
The photovoltaic module is composed of individual cells connected in series. Thi s type of connection allows you to add tension. The rated voltage of the module shall be equal to the number of cells that make up the voltage of each cell (app rox. 0.5 volts). Usually produce are composed of modules 30, 32, 33 and 36 cells in series, as the required application. It seeks to give the module stiffness i n its structure, electrical insulation and resistance to climatic factors. There fore, the cells connected in series are wrapped in plastic, elastic (Etilvinilac elato) which also makes the role of electrical insulating, tempered glass with l ow iron content in the face to the sun, and a multilayer plastic laminate (GRP)
in rear face. In some cases the glass is replaced by a sheet of transparent plas tic material. The module has a frame made of aluminum or polyurethane boxes and connections which reach the positive and negative terminals of the series of cel ls. The terminals of the boxes connect the cables connecting the module to the s ystem. Steps of the manufacturing process of the module:
Electrical testing and classification of cell-cell electrical interconnection of the whole assembly. Placement of cells between layers of welded plastic encapsu lant and the glass plates and plastic lamination module. The whole machine is re ndered in a semi-high-vacuum, through a process of heating and mechanical pressu re, as the laminate. Curing. The laminate is processed in a temperature controll ed oven in which to complete the polymerization of the plastic encapsulant and a ttains perfect adhesion of the different components. The assembly, after curing, is a single piece. Framing. Arises primarily an elastic sealant around the peri meter of the laminate and then the aluminum profiles that form the frame. They u se pneumatic machines to achieve the proper pressure. The polyurethane moldings are placed via injection machines. Placement of terminals, terminals, diodes box es and final Test connections
Electrical insulation characteristics operating tram (3000 Volt DC) Physical asp ects, defects in workmanship, etc. Impact Strength Tensile strength of the conne ctions
Resistance to saline mist and moisture behavior in high temperature environment for prolonged periods (100 degrees Celsius for 20 days) to changes in thermal st ability (-40 º C to +90 º C) in successive cycles
Voltage and current: Electricity is the flow of charged particles (electrons) fl
owing through conductive materials (such as copper cables or bars). These partic
les acquire a power source (generator, photovoltaic module, accumulator battery,
etc.) and transferring this energy to a load (lamp, motor, communication equipm
ent, etc..) And then return to the source to repeat the cycle. If you imagine a
basic circuit as an accumulator battery connected to a lamp will have been indic
ated in Figure 3:
The accumulator battery is a source of electricity, or electromotive force (emf)
. The magnitude of the WEF's what we call tension and is measured in volts. Thes
e concepts can be better understood if one makes the analogy of a water pumping
system. Thus, it will replace the flow of electrons by water, the source of tens
ion for a water pump and cord by a tubing. It will have then:
ELECTRIC MODEL Electricity is the flow of electrons through a wire is measured i
n amps. The source of power supply voltage to the electron hydraulic model of wa
ter flow is the flow of water through a pipe. It is measured in liters / sec. Th
e pump delivers water pressure to it. The pressure is measured in kg/cm2 (or mm
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