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MaurícioGomes - A Mount Or Miss Trans FM

MaurícioGomes - A Mount Or Miss Trans FM

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Published by: 4gen_7 on Jul 08, 2010
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11/14/2013

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Technical Specification PLL FM Stereo Transmitter (Considerations)
by Maurice J. G. Gomes September/2003

X POWER DISTANCE The distance arriving radio waves has nothing to do with the po wer being used. When a transmitter uses no power greater than zero watts, the si gnal travels to any place that allow spreading. The signal will come stronger in some places and weaker in others, may even come very weak so it can be useful i n some receivers. Increasing the power will not make their signals reach farther , but stronger. The trick is to use transmitter power that makes the signals are audible in the place where you want to go. The power to be used depends much mo re on propagation conditions and the type of antenna being used. It also depends on the type of signal you want to send and situation of the station at the othe r end. The POWER TRANSMISSION BY RECEIVER VISTA Considering the viewpoint of a g ood reception, the rule of least power could well spell: Uses the power sufficie nt for transmitting signals are different from the noise in the receiver. Noise can be in many ways. If for example disconnects the antenna equipment and the vo lume increases, you will hear a noise. If the signals that arrive are not strong enough to overcome this noise, there will be no statement. Connect the antenna again, now hear the noise of the band (static, thermal noise and other types of noise emitted by industry, automobiles, etc.). All this noise surpasses what we say at the outset, we have more noise than signal. Other types of noise coming f rom other stations, and electrical appliances that are called for interference. If the signals arrive, these sources do not overlap the interfering audio will n ot be heard! Furthermore, we consider the type of information that sends and rec eives. Emissions type cw, SSB, RTTY and FM occupy different amount of spectrum. Thus, for example, in the cw power is concentrated in a relatively narrow in ran ge. Broadcast in ssb, moreover, extends its power to a width of 2.5 kHz. When yo u're tuning into the exact frequency of the transmitter, the receiver picks up t he noise and the transmitted signal. The trick is to maximize the amount of the transmitted signal and minimize the amount of noise perceived. To do this, the b andwidth of the receiver (selectivity) should adapt to the bandwidth of the tran smitter. Excessive selectivity in the receiver does not take the power of the tr ansmitter because the receiver does not receive it, and instead a very broad sel ectivity, pick up all the energy of transmission, but also add much noise. The F M transceiver vhf and uhf are usually optimized its selectivity and can not adju st, but if v / c is operating between 160 and 10 meters, the transceiver will pr obably need some adjustment in selectivity. For proof, we have to try to narrow the selectivity of the equipment when noise and interference are present. From t he viewpoint of the receiver, we can understand that increasing the transmitter power is not always the best way to combat noise. If for example, a defective co mponent causes your receiver produces wheezing, two will be more convenient

fix it than to ask the other station to increase power. If a thermostat tank (an other example) is faulty, generates electrical noise, then it is easier to repai r it than to ask the other station to increase power. The stations that transmit and receive can enjoy the use of its power in transmission of another very impo rtant way: by using directional antennas (antennas that direct energy to the app ropriate place and receive the best signals of where they come out). A transmitt er using an antenna "nondirectional" can work just as poverty in all directions. An antenna that strengthens the signals transmitted and received, compared with one antenna is used to say that the former has more gain. A directional antenna transmits more energy (focus) to your destination and in return also concentrat es more energy when in a receiving antenna of less or no gain, thereby obtaining a better signal to noise ratio, because the signals and unwanted noise coming f rom other directions are attenuated. Bounce flash on a camera seems to increase the brightness of the bulb, but actually he only concentrates the light and send s it as a bundle. The lamp itself has continued with the same power! The antenna for that analogy, increase the effective radiated power station without having to increase transmitter power. In reception,€gain antenna makes the stations loo k stronger because it collects more energy from the transmission. Directional an

tennas, are tools of great value because it allows better use of transmission po wer to achieve better signal to noise ratio. The "directivity" helps not to send signals to places where they want. Moreover it also occurs as other stations th at may be using the same frequency and are not interfered or cause interference. But if this is so, because all the networks do not use it? One obvious reason i s the price, but another reason is that it is not always practical, since for ex ample the directional antennas for frequencies below 10 MHz are very large and a lso need large towers and rotors to support them. POWER VERY, VERY LIGHT A sheet of paper can communicate ideas simply because there is paint over it. We are ab le to understand it because they can distinguish what is and what is ink and pap er where each is located. The ink must be dark enough and clear enough role. The paper does not emit light, we have to lighten it, and if the light is not stron g enough, we will have difficulty distinguishing ink from paper, ie, there is su fficient contrast and then it becomes difficult to understand what is written on paper . With little effort we can even read anything even in low light situatio ns. But if the light is poor, we must approach more paper, we have opened more e yes or tilt the paper toward the light source so that it protrudes over much of the existing poor. 3

However, if properly illuminate the role, certainly we will read without difficu lty. The reception of radio signals is much like a printed text. The signs are t hat we want to hear the ink. The sounds are like paper. Unless the signs are str ong enough to contrast with the noise, your ears will not be able to "read" the signs. When it costs us a great effort to read what is written on paper, under a dverse conditions of light, we must read the text several times until we underst and. Same happens with the noise at the reception that will not let us understan d what our correspondent says, because of that we lose the thread of conversatio n or even sensitive information, then we have to ask for information that is rep eated at other times. Similarly, if we use a strong lamp to read, as we ascend t he power is above the point needed to be understood. By that we mean it: Use it if the minimum power required to achieve the desired contact. That is to say tha t lighting is used to make the paint is enough contrast on the paper. GETTING TH E MAXIMUM TRANSMITTER The first step would be to adjust the transmitter for opti mal power output. With other controls set at max power, is the gain modulation w hich together control the power and quality of the signal sent. Reducing power i s good. If the signal is sufficiently well above the noise, lower quarter of the power used will only be noticed in SWR meter to another colleague without loss of intelligibility. So why use full strength? There is, in situations of sound p ropagation, differences between using either 50 or 100 watts. On VHF we also use low power, unless we are required otherwise. Experiments with antennas, as ment ioned, switch to a directional antenna can make everything different. Hands-on, less power and better antennas!

4Operating frequency:

To avoid interference with TV channels, choose an FM frequency that does not mat
ch the one operated by TV stations.
CHANNEL RANGE (MHz) FREQ. FM FREQ. TV 6 82-88 88.1 176.2 88.3 176.6 88.5 177 88.
7 177.4 88.9 177.8 89.1 178.2 89.3 178.6 89.5 179 89 , 7 179.4 7 174-180 89.9 17
9.8 90.1 180.2 90.3 180.6 90.5 181 90.7 181.4 90.9 181.8 91.1 182.2 91 3 183 182
.6 91.5 91.7 183.4 91.9 183.8 92.1 184.2 92.3 184.6 92.7 185.4 92.5 185 8180-186
92.9 185.8 93.1 186.2 93.3 186.6 93.5 187 93.7 187.4 93.9 187.8 94.1 188.2 94.3
188.6 94.5 189 94.7 189.4 94.9 189.8 95.1 190.2 95.3 190.6 95.7 191.4 95.5 191
9186-192 95.9 191.8 96.1 192.2 96.3 192.6 96.5 193 96.7 193.4 96.9 193.8 97.1 19
4.2 97.3 194.6 97.5 195 97.7 195.4 97.9 195.8 98.1 196.2 98.3 196.6 98.5 197 197
.4 98.7 10192-198 98.9 197.8 CHANNEL RANGE (MHz) FREQ. FM FREQ. TV 99.1 198.2 99

.3 198.6 99.5 199 99.7 199.4 99.9 199.8 100.1 200.2 100.3 200.6 100.5 201 100.7 201, 4 100.9 201.8 101.1 202.2 101.3 202.6 101.5 101.7 203.4 203 11198-204 101.9 203.8 102.1 204.2 102.3 204 6 102.5 205 102.7 205.4 102.9 205.8 103.1 206.2 103 .3 206.6 103.5 207 103.7 207.4 103.9 207.8 104.1 208, 2 104.3 208.6 104.5 104.7 209.4 209 12204-210 104.9 209.8 105.1 210.2 105.3 2106 105.5 211 105.7 211.4 105 .9 211.8 106.1 212.2 106.3 212.6 106.5 213 106.7 213.4 106.9 213.8 107.1 214, 2 107.3 214.6 107.5 107.7 215.4 215 13210-216 107.9 215.8

5Standing wave ratio (VSWR):

Every antenna has a certain impedance, which equals the radiation resistance of a more reactive component. If there is no marriage between the impedance of the antenna, cable and from the transmitter by feeding it along with an RF signal, w e will have an effect that is called standing wave, an effect which will be grea ter the larger the mismatch between the cable and antenna. The acronym SWR (stan ding wave ratio) or COE (coefficient of standing waves) can also appear as SWR, which comes from the English standing wave ratio. A high ROE can cause serious d amage to the tank end. For example, if a transmitter provides 100 watts of power and there is reflected a 25-watt, power net move the antenna is 75 watts. That would give a steady reading of 3:1 in the meter. These "75 watts" irradiated cov er practically the same distance as the full 100 watts, 25 watts but those that return can cause damage to equipment. The antenna are in line with the frequency determined by the transmitter (wavelength) allows us to have an ROE close to id eal (1,0:1), but somewhere around 1.3:1 or even 1.5:1 is accepted, without major loss of power and or data to the transmitter. TABLE OF ANTENNAS ON EFFICIENCY ROE Performance of Antenna IMPEDANCE OF ANTENNA IN ANTENNA OHMS CONCLUSION

1.00: 1
1.05: 1 1.10: 1 1.15: 1 1.25: 1 1,30:1 1.35: 1 1.40: 1 1.50: 1 1.55: 1 1.65: 1 1
.75: 1 1.85: 1 1.95: 1 2.10: 1 2.15: 1 2.30: 1 2.60: 1

100%
99% 98% 96% 95% 94% 90% 86% 85% 84% 80% 78% 76% 74% 70% 68% 60% 50% 40%

52 or 50
54 or 49 or 57 or 47 60 45 63 43 66 or 40 or 70 or 38 or 73 or 37 78 35 81 33 87
or 31 or 90 or 30 or 96 or 28 100 27 109 25 113 or 24 or 120 or 23 135 or 20 15
6 or 18

IDEAL

OPTIMUM
ACCEPTABLE
BAD
VERY BAD BAD
3.00 or MORE: 1
6Wavelength (l):

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