References: - International Standard ISO-8573-1 - 1st edition, 1991 - Internatio nal Standard ISO-7183 - 1st edition, 1986 - Compressed Air and Gas Handbook - Co mpressed Air and Gas Institute - USA - Fifth Edition, 1989 - www.knowpressure . org - compressed air challenge - The treatment of compressed air as a factor in reducing costs in the industry study organized by the Chamber Sector Industrial Compressors - ABIMAQ
COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM
GENERATION OF COMPRESSED AIR
The selection of air compressor is a direct function of the application of compr
essed air, which determines the flow rate, pressure and purity of it. The pressu
re x flow diagram below helps in choosing the most suitable type of compressor t
o meet these parameters:
For example, if we select compressors for a total flow of 1800 cfm at a pressure of 100 psig, recommend three models of rotary screw each 900 cfm (or slightly l arger), a reserve, which should operate on a rotating basis. Regarding the level of purity of compressed air, even with the advent of treatment equipment and de contamination extremely efficient, which purify the air in addition to any requi rement, we highly recommend choosing not lubricated compressors when the applica tion is critical (hospitals, laboratories, air human breath, etc..), eliminating the risk of an excessive release of oil in the pipeline in case of an accident with the systems of separation of oil lubricated compressors. Besides these para meters, one should also carefully consider the following aspects in selecting a compressor: energy efficiency Did you know that the cost of electricity to gener ate compressed air is ~ U.S. $ 0.005 / m³ @ 7 barg? (Since 1.0 kWh ~ $ 0.04) reg ime of operation proportion of time loading / unloading relief temperature of th e air synchronization starts / stops at facilities with more than one compressor problems with basement / foundation availability of water and / or ease of inst allation of air ducts for cooling the initial cost of operation and maintenance costs life dimensions noise level safety devices meeting the local and internati onal standards of design, performance and availability of technical safety relia bility The place where the compressors will be installed also should be the subj ect of a previous study. Whenever possible, you should choose to keep them in a room to suit your own needs. The Hall of the compressors must respect certain ba sic principles for optimal functioning of the entire system, as being located pr eferably separate and externally to the areas 'productive' of the enterprise, bu t close enough not to incur a high pressure drop air to the users.
1000 Axial (500) 100 Screw Picks
Discharge pressure, psig
100 000 1 million
Flow, cfm (a)
In determining the amount of compressor system, the maxim "is a little, two is g
ood and three is too many" fits nicely. In fact, two compressors that meet the t otal demand of the system, supported by a third compressor in the same capacity on standby, represent a rational choice in all respects, whether economic, opera tional or any other kind.
noise emitted by equipment should be isolated from the outside and the room shou
ld be as far as possible to the human presence, except for its direct operators.
uptake of atmospheric air should be kept away from any kind of contamination or
heat sources such as cooling tower water, unpaved streets, chemical baths, chim
neys, boilers, exhaust of combustion engines, etc.. The neglect of this item cre
ates problems with the quality of compressed air and energy consumption. Did you
know that 3 ° C reduction in ambient air temperature at the inlet of the compre
ssor providing an energy savings of 1%? cooling of air-cooled compressors must b
e performed by pipeline entry and exit, while seeking the lowest temperature ava
ilable. to layout, area, height, floor and other features of the room should fac
ilitate the operation and display control panels and equipment, in addition to f
ree access for maintenance. entering the room should be allowed only to authoriz
ed personnel. Care must be taken to ensure that all safety standards are met, es
pecially those relating to controls and electric motors, and pressure equipment.
condensate generated by the system is an acidic effluent and must be discarded
to the environment with due care. There is appropriate equipment for treatment o
f condensate.Equipment for compressed air treatment and air tanks are also usua
lly installed in the compressor room. Though essential for the supply of compres
sed air with the quality required by the client application, these devices intro
duce an additional pressure loss in the system, which must be specified when the
adjustment of the compressor discharge pressure. The following are the factors
that hinder a more efficient performance of a compressed air system:
Compressed air leakage X Pipe
Leak hole diameter (in.)
The international standard ISO 8573-1, is the central reference on the quality o f compressed air for general use, not worth much for private uses such as medica l air, human breath and some others. The following table shows the classes of co mpressed air quality according to their typical three contaminants: water, oil a nd solid particles.
Water (º C) -70 -40 -20 +3 +10 +7
O-8573 recommends the following sequence of standard equipment:
1 / 32 "2.72 117.00
1 / 16 "10.9 468.00
1 / 8 "44.2 1902.00
1 / 4 "174
symbols conf. ISO-1219-1
m³ / h leak U.S. $ / year
1 - or before the pre-filter
Considering: P = 7barg / use = 24h/day - 365 days / year
3 Load loss (U.S. $ / year)
There is also its own standard - ISO-7183 - which addresses the design and perfo rmance testing of air dryers. Dryers installed in temperate climates must comply with ISO-7183-A, which specifies the temperature at 25 ° C and the temperature of air entering the dryer at 35 ° C. Dryers installed in tropical climates shoul d conform to ISO-7183-B, which specifies the temperature at 38 ° C and the tempe rature of air entering the dryer at 38 ° C.
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