NATIONAL UNIVERSITY POLYTECHNIC SCHOOL OF ASSUMPTION
FOUR LEVELS WITH ELEVATOR THREE MODES OF OPERATION
Authors: Cheon I JosÃ© Miguel Barboza Ana Romero Segovia Derlis Counselor: Mr. L
1. INTRODUCTION An elevator or lift is a vertical transportation system designed to move people or goods between floors laid, These devices consist of a car or platform moving within a gap and slide along vertical guides, consisting of mech anisms security and a source of electrical power to operate mechanical and elect ronic. In 1853 an elevator was shown equipped with a device (called safe) to sto p the car if the rope broke. In this case, a spring would operate two pawls on t he car, forcing them to be coupled to the supports of the sides of the hole and to support the cabin. This invention promoted the construction of lifts. Vertica l lifts there are many kinds, whether multiple speeds, different types of cabin, cabin different decorations, lighting, etc. . The hydraulic elevators, are d istinguished from others because they have a piston inside that has oil, and is what propels him to climb. The machine is filled with oil is, and when you want to lower the hydraulic lift, the machine absorbs the oil that is currently in th e piston and is just beginning to fall down. This type of maneuver is recommende d for low-rise buildings, but can also be installed in buildings of greater heig hts.  The exterior doors may also be of various types, manual doors, semiauto matic or automatic doors. Vertical lifts can carry loads of different people, de pending on the weight to accept the cabin, which is from two or more people, dep ending on the type of load acceptance. In high-rise buildings is the need of ins talling vertical lifting because it keeps us from having to go up or down stairs so we make life easier and make us use less effort. For its technical specifica tion must slow down when it reaches a certain height because of gravity, this is used for variable speed drives controlled by PLC . These vertical lifts, mak e our lives easier, because we avoid having to climb stairs in buildings of grea t height.
1.1 Elements 1.1.1 constituent Cabin The cabin is the element through which are transported goods and people in the elevator system. It is comprised of two main elements: the frame and box. The steel frame is the element to setting the driv e cables and the parachute mechanism. Your safety factor must be calculated to w ithstand normal loads and those that occur in the time between operating the par achute system is suddenly struck the cockpit. The box affixed to the frame shoul d be constructed of materials of high mechanical strength, which are also non-co mbustible and does not cause gas or fumes. The cab roof must withstand without b reaking or being deformed by the weight of two men. On the same should be placed on computer controls manual operation.
1.1.2 Group wheeled tractor lift groups are often composed of an engine coupled to a speed reducer, in which output shaft is mounted sheave dragging by bond wir es. The three-phase motors are used, the type of squirrel-cage rotor. The gearbo x consists of a steel worm meshed with a crown of bronze. In the same auger shaf t of the gearbox is usually mounted drum brake, a mechanical linkage coupled to the pulley. 
Control maneuvers 1.1.3 Control of elevator systems, carried out by electronic m aneuvers, responsible for operating the direction of movement of the car and sel ect the properties for which this should stop. Currently, elevator controls are microprocessors using artificial intelligence algorithms determine how to reduce waiting times for
d to control engine speed, car doors, floor doors, speed of onset of stop motion and speed. Safety Devices 1.2 System security is a key element in the elevators . To maximize use a number of specific devices: mechanical interlocking 1.2.1 Th e access doors to the floors, making it impossible to open all doors except the floor where the car is stopped. 1.2.Two electric locking also locks in the floor s, which prevents movement of the elevator if a door is open. 1.2.3 Parachute ca bles broken or unbalanced traction device capable of stopping the elevator still laden minted on the guides, which is used to stop the elevator when the speed o f the car exceeds a certain limit or he breaks a of the suspension cables. 1.2.4 speed limiter is a pulley installed on the top of the elevator connected to the cabin through a steel cable which transmits the movement to monitor speed. In c ase of increased speed, the device uses the principle of centrifugal energy to a ctivate a second device installed in the cockpit that acts as a wedge and stop t he movement. 1.2.5 Limit sensors that interrupt the power when the car exceeds t he extreme rising or falling. 1.2.6 Emergency stop device interrupts the operati on, cut power to the tractor group and acts on the brake. Permits the detention of nullifying elevator cabin controls and floors.
1.2.7 alarm bell for use by passengers in case of breakdown or emergency, and re ceive assistance as soon as possible. 1.2.8 Emergency lighting illuminates the c abin in case the normal lighting is interrupted for any failure or power outage.  2 OBJECTIVES 2.1 General Objective: To design an electronic system using a PIC microcontroller, capable of executing operations in an Automatic or decide i ts future operations through external signals provided by an operator to determi ne the program's logic. 2.2 Objectives Specific objectives: 2.2.1 Fit for the dr ive circuits for control and power unit. 2.2.2 Perform the interconnection of th e microcontroller peripherals with the respective sensors and actuators. 2.2.3 D emonstrate the various applications that have the PIC 16F877A microcontroller. 2 .2.4 Designing the microcontroller software in C programming language
3 MATERIALS AND METHODS The physical structure of the designed system consists o f a model of an elevator pit, built by four brass H-beams, connected by flat iro n rods fastened with screws and attached to a wooden base with metal parts L-sha ped The DC motor of 24 watts, is positioned at the top of the structure to make the drive from the box and the counterweight through industrial belt. The moving parts of the elevator cab and counterweight are embedded axes they used to slid e up and down without swinging sideways. Two axes were used for housing for the elevator and a counterweight. The magnetic sensors (reed switch) are attached to the flat bars that indicate the building's floors, which are four in total, gro und floor, first, second and third floors. The system has a control panel where the buttons for calling the respective floors and emergency stop switches for se lecting a mode of operation.
It also contains a liquid crystal display (LCD) dot matrix 40 for 2 lines used t o indicate the position of the lift at any given time . The electronic contro l of the elevator is achieved through the PIC 16F877A microcontroller mounted on a plaque that is peripheral data buses that connect to the respective ports of the PIC, crystal consists of a 4 MHz internal oscillator for the PIC and the pow er inputs are connected capacitors for electrical noise reduction, includes a re set circuit connected to the respective pin of the PIC to reset the system . It then describes the building blocks of the developed prototype.
Power Interface Circuit Control Motor
3.1 Software for viewing Display floors to display The display software was deve loped in C language, and compiled the program into machine language mplab to be taxed in ICProg which is the recorder program that runs the CIP. 3.2 Software fu nctions and stop motion Like visualization software for the display was develope d in C, compiled with MPLAB and charged at ICProg, this time taking into account the modules stop sensing reed switch sensors and time Stop waiting until a next signal or external order by the control circuit. 3.3 Control Circuit
The entire system is governed by a single integrated circuit, the PIC 16F877A mi crocontroller,ÂThis PIC has 40 pins, works with 35 words of instructions is a m icrocontroller 8-bit CMOS FLASH which has six input / output configurable to ope rate in various ways. For the implementation of the project, using the six avail able ports, the port A acts as input signal selection mode of operation, the B i s the output port that connects to the power unit to control the movement of the engine; C port is the entrance floor sensors and switches, the port D is config ured as output port to send E sends the LCD. the LCD data and control signals to the
3.4 Control circuit for a PIC 16F877A side buttons, 2 switches, the outputs A an d B, which together with reverse twist to control motor that moves the elevator. connected to the sensors, the stop button, and has two circuit GND are connecte d to all the movements of
3.5 Power Interface power interface design was performed by digital circuit H-br idge type that makes possible the reverse rotation of the engine when required i n the operation of the system used for this TIP 122 transistors and NPN bipolar transistors 127 222 and capacitor for noise control food, pulses interface recei ves a control circuit to rotate in one direction and another to the opposite dir ection when there is no presence of these pulses the motor remains at rest. The land of the power control circuit, if the signal from the engine to be located i n the center of 5 volts to 0 and 5 take turns in another sense, 5 Volts will not spin. is common to the circuit ground entry is 0 Volts and 0 Volts will not tur n, a signal must begin turning the motor, when sense and if it is 5 and 0 turns the transistors biased
4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The system was designed to be strong physically, withou t neglecting the aesthetic, then bear the weight and movement of the engine-that is sensitive to vibrations of the structure. The hoistway glided smoothly throu gh the lines and jump start did not occur or shock. This box was stopped at the place of entry and exit, so we conclude that the choice and arrangement of the s ensors was
correct. Tests were conducted in the modes of automatic and manual operation for several hours and the software will not crash and responded properly, the engin e is not warmed up and neither did the microcontroller and power interface (brid ge H), indicating that components were sized correctly. The printed boards were designed using Eagle 4.17 and were manufactured by a photomechanical process, pe rforated tip soldiers empirical type. dremmel and fine drill To record the way t
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