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Report: The Simple Pendulum

Report: The Simple Pendulum

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11/14/2013

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Laboratory reports of 07/03/2007 and 28/03/2007 Course Physics Iprof. GerbaldoTHE SIMPLE PENDULUM1. Report Camillo Stefanucci. Bachelor in Engineering Physics
OBJECTIVES OF EXPERIENCE IN LABORATORYThe two laboratory experiments proposed to study the motion of simple pendulum in accordance with the classical mechanics to achieve basically two distinct conclusions: - A review of theoretical law for small angles of oscillation to obtainan approximately correct value of the acceleration of gravity. - The test of proportionality between period and length in order to gain experience from a physical law. - Statistical analysis of data through charts and error evaluation.
MATERIAL form of usage- Pendulum simple: it consists of a nylon thread tied to a stable with adjustable height to which end is connected to a metal ball. - Stopwatch Digital Timer used to determine the period of the pendulum, electronic and handy with differentkeys and with a precision of 0.001 s. - Size: instrument to measure small lengthmeasurements with a precision of 0.02 mm (as indicated by the manufacturer) - Measuring tape: very common meter used to measure various lengths which has an accuracy of 1 mm.
DESCRIPTION OF EXPERIENCEThe laboratory experience consisted of several stages in making measurements with instruments at the disposal and reprocessing both physical and statistical analysis. 1) Measuring the length of the pendulum The first steps taken in the laboratory were conducted on spherical mass at the end of this wire (which we consider rigid and inextensible to meet the standards of classical mechanics) to determine the size and consequently the total length of the the pendulum. Through thegauge has been given an estimate of the diameter of the mass trying to be as accurate as possible in the center of the end2. Report Camillo Stefanucci. Bachelor in Engineering Physicsinstrument in the middle of the sphere. Repeating this delicate operation two tothree times has led to a measure that has been reported in the table on page (7) with its error in this case represents the uncertainty of the instrument used.In addition to the diameter you need to know but also the length h of the nylonthread used. Since in this case a considerable one-dimensional object is to usetape. Placing one end of the meter on the bottom of the support to which was attached the wire (binding point of the pendulum so simple question) and the otherend on top of the ground (where they ended the line) is drawn with its length uncertainty (larger than the first due to a less sensitive) after several measurements (3-4) trying to keep the meter as close as possible to the wire taut. Unfortunately, the total length of the physical system can be determined experimentally only through the sum of these two measurements that is within + wire becausewe realized that the wire is not exactly related to the ball but a pin whose size can not be neglected. That had to be calculated using the gauge again and this time whereas the vertical distance ball pin + denote by p. This measurement allows us to find the length of the physical law taken into account considering the length of wire, that of the pin and the radius of the mass as follows:A small note that will be refined below the choice to consider as the distance from binding to the center of mass, this is not a case because the mechanically simple pendulum should have a material point to its end and not a physical body.2) Measurement of the oscillation period of the next step is to measure the period of oscillation of the pendulum. For this we used the digital clock at our disposal and we characterized their times measured are given in the table on page (
 
5). These days, however, are not related to each oscillation to decrease but theerrors were sampled at the minimum that is recommended every 5 swings. To makethese measurements the mass has moved away from the equilibrium position of a distance x3. Report Camillo Stefanucci. Bachelor in Engineering Physicsheld steady by a metal support on which was resting.€Leaving it began its free oscillations whose times were not timed, however, from the first but by the third or fourth because the oscillations were first settling the mass that is necessaryto stabilize without further oscillations or rotations around its axis which may contribute experimental error. Another tip was to make that the oscillating motion to take place strictly on a plane and not an ellipse. The oscillations weretimed 120 times for two reasons: 1) reduce significantly the error on the measurement and 2) to have enough data to be manipulated to prove statistically thata normal distribution. Eliminating all possible systematic errors on the measurement have impacted primarily by random errors due mainly to delays in the reflexes to score the number of oscillations concluded. In these measurements the onlymeasures of those rejected were counting errors or reflections highly visible,while others have been iterated and considered in the statistical analysis (which will be refined below). 3) Calculation of gravity from the theory is considered the function f (l, T) which allowed us to calculate the acceleration of gravity in the laboratory where the experiment was conducted (Torino). Having all dataavailable (pendulum length and period average) has made the evaluation of thisconstant. Of course, to see if the value obtained experimentally was correct tobe calculated in relative error and compare it with the correct value of g. Thiswas done after the statistical analysis and allowed us to draw a concrete conclusion of the experiment. 4) measurement periods at various lengths The second and final laboratory experience provided instead of calculating the gravitationalconstant g through a different method. That has taken another pendulum and the same measurements were made in paragraph 1 to determine the length of the bead system + pin. Given this constant value was calculated the period of oscillation of the pendulum changing 6-7 times the length of the wire. First, we are considered very small lengths which provided a value4. Report Camillo Stefanucci. Bachelor in Engineering Physicshigh period and on which mistakes are mainly due to reaction times of the experimenters. Discard these measures, unacceptable, we have proceeded with the experience of point 2 (calculating the period of oscillations 5 a dozen times) for 5 hdifferent lengths of wire and therefore the pendulum. All measurements are given on pages 7-8. We subsequently reported measurements on a graph T, through themethod of least squares we interpolated the data deriving a direct proportionality between the two measures (checking the theoretical law) and then the constantof proportionality that has allowed us to calculate the ' acceleration of gravity g.
Collection and processing the dataThe following table shows the list of the times measured every 5 swings that allowed us to divide by 5 to obtain the approximate period of each oscillation to 0.001 s (the uncertainty of the instrument). The average value obtained from these measurements in fact corresponds to the arithmetic average of these and then:At any time then you can associate a gap that is important in statistical analysis and determination of the error on the measure, given by:(Trivia: the sum of the differences of all measurements is still nothing!) Time7.545 7.547 7.562 7.570 7.572 7.576 7.578 7.588 7.588 7.590 7.596 Period 1.509 1.509 1.512 1.514 1.514 1.515 1.516 1.518 1.518 1.518 1.519 Difference 0.023 0.022 0.019 0.018 0.017 0.016 0.016 0.014 Time 0.014 0.014 0.012 7.661 7.662 7.662 7.664 7.664 7.664 7.664 7.665 7.665 7.665 7.667 Period 1.532 1.532 1.532 1.533 1.533 1.533 1.533 1.533 1.533 1.533 1.533 Difference -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -
 
0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.0025. Report Camillo Stefanucci. Bachelor in Engineering PhysicsTime 7.599 7.602 7.609 7.612 7.614 7.616 7.618 7.620 7.620 7.621 7.622 7.625 7.625 7.626 7.626 7.627 7.627 7.630 7.635 7.637 7.637 7.638 7.638 7.638 7.638 7.6387.640 7.642 7.643 7.644 7.644 7.644 7.645 7.646 7.646 7.647 7.648 7.648 7.649 7.649 7.649 7.651 7.651Period 1.520 1.520 1.522 1.522 1.523 1.523 1.524 1.524 1.524 1.524 1.524 1.525 1.525 1.525 1.525 1.525 1.525 1.526 1.527 1.527 1.527 1.528 1.528 1.528 1.528 1.528 1.528 1.528 1.529 1.529 1.529 1.529 1.529 1.529 1.529 1.529 1.530 1.530 1.5301.530 1.530 1.530 1.530Deviation 0.012 0.011 0.010 0.009 0.009 0.008 0.008 0.008 0.008 0.007 0.007 0.007 0.007 0.006 0.006 0.006 0,006 0.006 0.005 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.0040.004 0.004 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.001Time 7.669 7.670 7.670 7.671 7.671 7.672 7.675 7.675 7.675 7.676 7.676 7.676 7.677 7.680 7.680 7.681 7.681 7.683 7.684 7.685 7.685 7.686 7.688 7.688 7.689 7.6907.693 7.697 7.697 7.698 7.700 7.701 7.701 7.709 7.710 7.713 7.713 7.715 7.715 7.717 7.719 7.719 7.720Period 1.534 1.534 1.534 1.534 1.534 1.534 1.535 1.535 1.535 1.535 1.535 1.535 1.535 1.536 1.536 1.536 1.536 1.537 1.537 1.537 1.537 1.537 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.539 1.539 1.539 1.540 1.540 1.540 1.540 1.542 1.542 1.543 1.543 1.543 1.5431.543 1.544 1.544 1.544Scrap -0.002 -0.002 -0.002 -0.003 -0.003 -0.003 -0.003 -0.003 -0.003 -0.004 -0.004 -0.004 -0.004 -0.004 -0.004 -0.005 -0.005 -0.005 -0.005 -0.005 -0.005 -0.006-0.006 -0.006 - 0.006 -0.006 -0.007 -0.008 -0.008 -0.008 -0.008 -0.009 -0.009 -0.010 -0.010 -0.011 -0.011 -0.011 -0.011 -0.012 -0.012 -0.012 -0.0126. Report Camillo Stefanucci. Bachelor in Engineering PhysicsTime 7.652 7.653 7.653 7.654 7.655 7.658Period 1.530 1.531 1.531 1.531 1.531 1.532Scrap 0,001 0,001 0,001 0,001 0,001 0.000Time 7.729 7.737 7.745 7.759 7.765 7.767Period 1.546 1.547 1.549 1.552 1.553 1.553Scrap -0.014 -0.016 -0.017 -0.020 -0.021 -0.022In the next table are reported the calculated values of various measures associated with each uncertainty in this case was considered as the precision of the instrument: Measure length made of wire diameter spherical mass of spherical masslength including the pin higher in the next table are reported the measurementsmade on different lengths of wire of the second pendulum with its uncertaintiesinstrumental measurement carried diameter spherical mass length spherical mass including the upper pin length of wire length of the wire length of the wire dB d1 wire length of the wire length d2 d3 d4 length of the wire length of wire found d5 value 0.02488 m 0.02654 m 0.215 m 0.241 m 0.285 m 0.322 m 0.343 m 0.402 m 0.450 m 0.001 m 0.00002 m 0.00002 Uncertainty m 0.001 m 0.001 m 0.001 m 0.001 m 0.001 m 0.001 m 0.567 m value found Uncertainty 0.02452 m 0.02671 m 0.00002 m 0.00002 m 0.001 m

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