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Integral calculation

Integral calculation

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Published by: 4gen_8 on Jul 09, 2010
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11/14/2013

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Practice of Integral CalculusHere we will discuss some methods to compute a large class of primitive functions.Indefinite integralIs continuous. There any primitives a constant that is always added explicitly., DefinedExample of different sub-interval and on.. HereWe can have constants. In other words, is a constant function on eachThey say that set.is the indefinite integralWhilefull nameNote It uses the concept of indefinite integral as a synonym for primitive. We could distinguish more rigorously defining the indefinite integral as any of thefunctions of the form, or is not specified. (Thus it determines it and it is used in the spirit of sub-section above.) The two definitions are equivalent to thefinest detail that gets so not all primitives the indefinite integrals: in fact, by changing the lower bound can not get all the constants, if is finite. is bounded or if the primitives are bounded, ifPrimitives usual functionsBy derivation, it is easy to verify the validity of the relations given in the table itself, it is verified by differentiation (chain rule!) That. OfwithTable: Primitives usual functionsThis formula will be discussed in more detail in the paragraph. It allows the use of elementary formulas above for a whole class of elementary functions "compound". Its application in particular cases (and therefore) is straightforward andgives:Exercise Generalize the previous form, replacingby integrating the.Integration by partsFor Proposal wasor withand using the full set:Demonstration wasHence (by absorbing the constant of integration in the indefinite integrals) thefirst part of the proposal. The second part is obtained by taking the value les
 
s value. Note This relationship is often used to reduce successively the degreeof a polynomial that multiplies a function we can integrate. It is also used forthe integration of expressions involving trigonometric functions, where one falls on the original function after two integrations.Example Calculate the primitive. We ask two times successivelyExample Calculate the primitive. We ask successivelyThenIt puts allin the left side and obtain after division by 2:After high school:Taylor formula with integral remainderAs an application of the integration by parts, prove the theorem [Taylor formulawith remainder Full] For and, we(4)(Reminder: therefunctionstimes continuously differentiable on.)The Taylor formula with integral remainder is historically the first among the various forms of Taylor (cf. chap., Page), found by Mr. Brook Taylor (1685-1731).It is used for the calculation of expansions that will be studied in the next chapter. It gives a polynomial approximation of the function near: indeed, if isclose, then the terms of the shape becomes very small, especially as high. The last term, called "full rest" of development, tends to zero faster than Demo For(as shown in chapter).The formula is true: indeed, it is written in this casewhich simply reflects the fact thatis a primitiveWhere.Suppose now () true for some, Andadmits a derivativecontinuous. Thus, both factors in the rest full enough to satisfy conditions to
 
make an integration by parts, withand. ThenThe upper hook is zero and the lower limit signs compensate, we thereforethemselvesand extending this into () we find the formula to rank.Changing the integration variableEither proposal and continuing a diffeomorphism, such a bijectionare continuously differentiable. In this case,with other words, is a primitive. In terms of integrals defined, weProof It is necessary and sufficient to show that the chain rule, wehas as derivative. Now, afterBut Soand(Which is shown by deriving).For a definite integral, we thereforeThis is the same as the formula given in the statement with.andApplications - Additional Practice:This theorem can be calculated if one knows how to calculate, or vice versa. Itis the basis of any "art of integration, which involves finding the right changes of variables.In practice, then we writeWe write symbolically question:,€and we substitute these two equations into the integralThen, having found the original substituent.the rhs, we return to the variableinExample Calculate the primitive on the interval. Let. This is justified because

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