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Romanesque Art ESO

Romanesque Art ESO

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03/26/2014

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Romanesqueart.

Romanesqueart.
•BetweentheXIandXIIIcenturiesdeveloped,inmuchofEurope,anartisticst
ylethat,byitsresemblanceinsomestructuralelementsinRomanart,calledRo
manesque.•Thisartisticstyleisthemostrepresentativeofthefeudalworld.

Religiousart
•Thegreatimportanceofreligioninmedievalsocietymadetheartisticexpress
ionsoftheMiddleAgeswerefundamentalmentandreligious.

ARCHITECTURE
•Thearchitecture(churches,cathedralsandmonasteries)occupiedacentralpla
ce.Alloverartssuchassculptureorpainting,mainlyusedtodecoratereligio
usbuildingsorcomplete.

TheRomanesqueChurches
Thechurcheswereoftenbuiltinstoneandthatisthereasonwhy,alongwithca
stles,manyofthemhavebeenpreservedtothisday.

ElementsofaRomanesquechurch
ElementsofaRomanesquechurch

PLANT
TheplanthadinitiallyconstructiveelementsofRomanoriginandwasasinglea
rm(basilica)withoneorthreeaisles.Hesoonaddedashorterarm,thetransep
t,whichgavethechurchesaLatincrossshapelikethebodyofChristonthecr
oss.wherebotharmscrossediscalledcruiseandusuallycoveredwithadome.

HEAD,Testera,APSE
SemicircularapsidalchapelsGIROLA:extensionoftheaislesbehindtheapse
Transept:transeptorCRUISESHIP
CRUISEThesectionproducedbytheintersectionofthenaveandtransept.Oneor

morelongitudinalshipsareusuallycoveredwithadomeorcupola,alsoserves

toilluminatetheinsideandoutsidetoslenderness.BellTower
FEET(input)ThemostwidespreadtypeoftempleistheLatincross.
STANDARD

CRUISEdomeVAULTSTranseptTORRES
BUTTRESSABSIDE
SHIPS
GIROLA
ApsesHOME
Togivesubstancetothebuildings,solidraisedbarrelvaultsthataresupporte

donthickwallsandmassivepiersorcolumns,connectedbyarchesorhalfcircl e.Asthestonevaultswereheavy,thewallsthatsupportedthemshouldbevery wide,andtomakesolidbuttressesareattachedtoexteriorwalls.Itopenedaf ewholesinthewallsandwindowswerenarrowandlong.TheinterioroftheRoma nesquechurchesgenerally,therefore,verydark.

MEDIA

WALLS:Theyprovidesupportandenclosure,characterizedbyitsthick,withfew openings(flared)andreinforcedexternallybybuttressestocounterthelateral thrustproducedbythevaults.

PILLARS:Ifthebuildingisasinglevessel,thecoverbracketisthewall,but ifseveral(largebuildings)isneededwithinasupportsystemmorecomplex,usi ngthepillarcompound(cruciform,withaverageadjacentcolumns,etc..)COLUMNS :usuallyplacedinapses,crypt,cloistersandelsewhere,manytimesalternatin gwiththepillarinthenave.Thecapitalsareanimportantplacefordecoratio n.

COVERS
Thevaultinginstoneapracticalsolutiontopreventfiresandasolidaestheti
csolution.

VAULTOFBARREL:Themostcharacteristicstyle,restsontheentirewall,sothi ckwallsareneeded,notveryhigh,withfewopeningstowithstandthethrustof thevaults.

Thevaultsarereinforcedarchescarryinside-arches-andabroadaretobepl

acedbuttressesorstirrups
Groinvault:Usedtocovertheaisles,leavingthebarreltothecentralnave.
DOMESanddome:Theystandonthecruisetogivemoreimportancetothis,markin

goutduetoitshigherelevation.
ItwascustomarytoplaceaTORRECAMPANARIOabroad,linkedtothechurchorsepa

ratefromit,whichservedtocalltoprayerorasawatchtower:.
InmonasteriesandchurcheswerebuiltsomegreatCLAUSTROS.
ARCHITECTURALCHARACTERISTICSOFTHESET
•ONTHEPREVALENCEOFSOLIDDARKVAIN•INDOOR•Landscape•ARTICLES•EMPLOYM

ENTSETOFSYSTEMATICarch
PREVALENCEOFSOLIDONTHEVAIN

•Respondtoconstructivetypeneedsbutalsolookforthiseffect:•Theneedf orthickwallsandstrongconditionswhichreducethegaps,sothatthewindows aremostlynarrowopenings(arrowslits)andoftenflareduetothicknessofthe wall.•Thedominanceofthewallwillmaketheirsurfacesisdevelopedbasedm uralpaintinglargefrescoeswithreligiousscenes(apsesandinteriorwalls)

DARKINTERIOR
•Theinteriorsareakindoftwilightthatforcestherecollection,soitisal
soatechnicalrequirementinadditiontoanaestheticwill

HORIZONTAL
•Thebuildingsgiveasenseofheaviness,becauseprevailinghorizontalasvert
ical.Insidethereisalsoahorizontalmovementcausedbythemanagementandrh
ythmofthearchesofthenave(arches)andrelevantportionsofthevault,they
dolooktowardstheapse.Asthestyleevolves,moreattentionwillcenteront
hevertical/tower,dome...).Justastheausterityofthefirstbuildingswil
lmakewayforamorerichlyornamented.

JOINTARTICLES
•Plantsareorganizedasanintegrated,althoughitsprincipleofconstruction
iscumulative.Butthespacesarebondedcanaddanorganicwholeprefigured

Systematicuseofarch
•Thearchisusedforeverything:•-thestructureofthevaults•-•crafta
rchery-covers•-vain•-cloisters•-asadecorativeelement:archivoltsa
ndblindarches

PaintingandRomansculpture

TEACHandDECORATING
•TheRomanesquestyledecoratedinsideandoutsidethechurchwithsculpturesa
ndreligiouspaintings.,Whichhadthefunctionofexplainingtothepeoplethe
sacredeventsoftheBible.

•IntheMiddleAges,theMayanpopulationwasilliterate,sotheimagesbecame
booksinwhichChristianscouldreadandlearnaboutreligion.
•Inadditiontoitstrainingfunction,thepaintingsandsculptureshadadecor

ativefunction.
FRESHandTABLES
TheRomanesquepaintingsarehighlyexpressive,technicallysanpearverysimple

.FRESCO

Itwasusedessentiallythetechniqueoffrescopainting.:Onthewall.spreada thicklayerofplaster.andwhen.wasstillwet,waspaintedonitsothatwhen dry,thecollarsaresetbetter.

Itdrewthepictures,charactersorobjects,canthicklines.thecolorisevenl yspread.No.wasnodepthorvolume,andtheprovisionwasdominatedfrontoft hedogisolatedfigures.

REPRESENTATIONOFCHRIST
•ThisrepresentationofJesusiscalledthePantocratororMaiestasDomini(Chr
istinMajesty).
•ThefigureofChristinSanIsidorodeLeón,isrepresentedinthebody.onew
holealmondwithinmandorlacall,also.,isshownsittingonthevaultofthesk
y..PantocratorofSanIsidorodeLeón,XIIcentury.

•Canblesshisrighthandwhiletheleftholdsadogpoundinwhichyoucanrea dEGOSUMLUXMUNDI(YOSOYLALUZDELMUNDO).•Surroundingitaresymbolicrep resentationsofthefour.Evangelists:MatthewAngel,Mark-lion,Lucas-Bulland Juanáguila.

ThereasonsmostcommonlyusedinpaintingwereRomanesquerepresentationsofth ePantocrator,whichwerelocatedintheapseandoccupiedacentralpositionwi thinthechurch.

HealsopaintedscenesfromtheBible,theGospelsandthelivesofsaints.

Inadditiontofresh,wallsandceilings,weremadepaintingsonpanel:wooddog coveredwithathinlayerofplaster..Theboardscoveringthefrontoftheal tarattheheadofthechurch.

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