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Notes Chemistry Form 4 Chapter 4 1

Notes Chemistry Form 4 Chapter 4 1

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CHEMISTRY 2010
THEME: Matter Around Us1
4.14.24.34.4
GROUP 18 ELEMENTS: NobleGases (Monoatomic gas)
1. These noble gases in group 18 of thePeriodic Table make up almost 1% of theair.2. All noble gases do not:(a) Dissolve in water,(b) Conduct electricity(c) Conduct heat(d) Monoatomic gases at roomtemperature.
Element/SymbolElectronconfig
Increasingboilingpoint,meltingpoint,densityand radiusHelium,He2Neon,Ne2.8 Argon, Ar 2.8.8Krypton,Kr 2.8.18.8Xenon,Xe2.8.18.18.8Radon,Ra2.8.18.32.83. Except for He, all of the noble gas atomshave 8 electrons in their outer most shells.This arrangement called the octetconfiguration. Thus, the arrangement of He(with 2 electrons in outer most shells ±extremely stable electron arrangement) isduplex electron configuration.4. Boiling point and melting point are lowbecause they have very low intermolecular force of attraction (Van der Waals force).5. Density is low because the molecules arefar apart from each other (big sizemolecules will have bigger intermolecular forces of attraction).6. Low reactivity of noble gases due to unusualhigh large ionization energies and unusuallow electron affinity.7. Uses:(a) Helium ± super conductors, fill airshipsand weather balloons, divers¶ tank(80% He, 20% O
2
), cool metals down.(b) Neon ± advertising light (glow red inlow pressure tubes), fill televisiontubes.(c) Argon ± fill light bulbs (does not reactwith tungsten filament), welding(prevent hot metal from reacting withO
2
from the air).(d) Krypton ± laser surgery, photographicflash lamps.(e) Xenon ± lighthouse lamps (blue light),making electron tubes.(f) Radon ± cancer treatment.
GROUP 1 ELEMENTS: Alkalimetals
1. They are all metals which react with water toform alkaline solution.2. All alkali metals are,(a) Solid(b) Silvery and shiny surfaces(c) Soft and melt easily(d) Conductors of electricity
Element/symbolElectronconfig
Decreasingboiling point,melting point,electro-positivity andhardness.
*only density and radiusincreasing.
Lithium,Li2.1Sodium,Na2.8.1Potassium,K2.8.8.13. The melting points, boiling points andhardness of the atoms decrease down thegroup because the size of the atomsincreases down the group causes themetallic bonding between atoms becomeweaker.4. The radius of the atoms increases down thegroup because the lower members havemore shells of electrons. Thus, mass of atom increases.5. The density increases down the group dueto its increasing mass and will producestronger intermolecular attraction. Theatoms are closer, resulting in their densitiesbeing higher.6. Electropositivity is a measure of the ability of an atom to lose its valence electrons. Thevalence electrons of the lower members arefurther away from the nucleus, and can beeasily donated. Thus, electropositivityincreases down the group.7. Chemical properties:(a) Reactivity depends on their ability togive away the valence electron(increase down the group).(b) Alkali metals react with oxygen gas toform metal oxides. Example:Na(s)
O
2
(g)
Na
2
O(c) Alkali metals react with water to formalkaline metal hydroxide solution andhydrogen gas. Example:2K(s)
2H
2
O(
)
2KOH(aq)
H
2
(g)(d) Alkali metals react with halogen(fluorine, chlorine and bromine) to formcolourless, crystalline ionic salts calledhalides. Example:2Li(s)
Cl
2
(g)
2LiCl(s)2Na(s)
Br 
2
(
)
2NaBr(s)2K(s)
I
2
(s)
2KI(s)8. Safety precautions:(a) Lithium, sodium, and potassium arehighly reactive to water and air, thusmust be kept under non reactive liquid(paraffin oil).(b) Reaction of potassium, rubidium,caesium and francium are explosive.Thus, a small piece should be usedalways during experiment.(c) Never handle those alkali metals withyour fingers because it can react withmoist which will form a corrosivehydroxide.
GROUP 17 ELEMENTS: Halogens(diatomic molecules)
1. Halogens are not conductors of heat andelectricity.2. At room temperature, chlorine is a gas,bromine is a liquid, and iodine is a solid.
Element/symbolElectronconfig
Increasingboilingpoint,meltingpoint,density andradius*reactivitydecreases.Fluorine,F2.7Chlorine,Cl2.8.7Bromine,Br 2.8.8.7Iodine,I2.8.18.8.7 Astatine, At2.8.18.18.8.73. Physical properties of halogen:4. Chemical properties of halogen:(a) Halogens react with heated aluminiumto produce powdery solid halides.Example:3Cl
2
(g)
2Al(s)
2AlCl
3
(s)3Br 
2
(
)
2Al(s)
2AlBr 
3
(s)(b) Halogens react with phosphorus toform phosphorus halides.(c) Halogens react with H
2
to form halides.Example:Cl
2
(g)
H
2
(s)
2HCl(s)Br 
2
(
)
H
2
(s)
2HBr(s)(d) Halogens react among themselves.Example:I
2
(s)
Cl
2
(g)
2HCl(s)5. Safety precautions:(a) Vapour of fluorine, chlorine, andbromine are poisonous.(b) Iodine affects negatively the respirationof all living things.(c) Astatine is radioactive.(d) All experiments of halogens should bedone inside a fume chamber.(e) Safety goggles and gloves should beused.
TRANSITION ELEMENTS: Group 3to group 12.
1. All elements in this block of the PeriodicTable have similar properties.2. Physical properties:(a) Hard, shiny and dense,(b) Good conductors of heat andelectricity,(c) Are malleable and ductile,(d) High tensile strength,
ChlorineBromineIodine
 All arecolouredNon-metalDo notconductelectricityCl (g), Br (l),I (s)PoisonousHavepungent &irritatingsmell
 
(liquid)
 
CHEMISTRY 2010
THEME: Matter Around Us2
5.25.1
(e) Radius of all transition elements isalmost constant,(f) Decreasing from left to right ± boilingpoint and melting point(g) Increasing from left to right ± protonnumber and density, electronegativity(increase slowly).3. Below are some of the transition elements:
Elements SymbolProtonnumber 
Scandium Sc 21Titanium Ti 22Vanadium V 23Chromium Cr 24Manganese Mn 25Iron Fe 26Cobalt Co 27Nickel Ni 28Copper Cu 29Zinc Zn 304. Special characteristic:(a) Majority of the transition elements havemore than one oxidation number intheir compounds.
Elements Compound FormulaOxidationnumber 
Chromium Potassiumdichromate(IV)K
2
Cr 
2
O
7
+6Chromium(II) chlorideCrCl
3
+3Manganese Manganese(II) chlorideMnCl
2
+2Manganese(IV) oxideMnO
2
+4Potassiummanganate(VI)K
2
MnO
4
+6Potassiummanganate(VII)KMnO
4
+7Iron Iron(II)chlorideFeCl
2
+2Iron(III)chlorideFeCl
3
+3Nickel Nickel(II)sulphateNiSO
4
+2Nickel(III)bromideNiBr 
3
+3Copper Copper(I)chlorideCuCl +1Copper(II)oxideCuO +2
(b) Most transition elements form colouredions as shown below:
IonsFormula of the ionsColour (aqueous)
Chromate(VI) CrO
42-
YellowishDichromate(VI) Cr 
2
O
72-
OrangeIron(II) Fe
2+
GreenishIron(III) Fe
3+
BrownishCopper(II) Cu
2+
BluishCobalt(II) Co
2+
Pale reddishManganate(VII) MnO
4-
PurpleChromium(III) Cr 
3+
Greenish(c) Many of the transition elements areable to from complex ions.(d) Many of the transition elements can actas catalyst. Catalysts are used inchemical reaction to speed up the rateof a reaction. A few industrialprocesses that use these elements or their compounds as catalysts are:
Haber process (manufactureammonia) ± iron.
Contact process (manufacturesulphuric acid) ± Vanadium(V)oxide.
Ostwald process (manufacture nitricacid) ± Platinum.
Hydrogenation of vegetable oil(manufacture margarine) - nickel,
CHAPTER 5: Chemical Bonds
FORMATION OFCOMPOUNDS
1. Conditions for the formation of chemicalbonds include the following:(a) Electrons in completely filled shells donot take part in bond formation.(b) Only valence electrons are involved inbond formation.(c) The combining atoms will change their electron arrangements to achieve thestable noble gas electronarrangements.2. The octet rule ± 2.8.18.32.18.8.
IONIC BONDS (Electrovalentbonds)
1. Ionic bond is the chemical bond formed fromthe transfer of electron from metal atoms tonon-metal atoms.2. Formation of ionic bond are as follows:3. Formation of cations (positive ions):
y
An atom that loses their valenceelectrons to achieve stable duplet or octetelectron arrangement similar to noblegases is called cation (fewer electronsthan protons ± metal atoms).
y
Metal atoms are more electropositive ±group 1, 2 and 13.
y
Example: Li
Li
+
 
e
-
 
 
Charge of 3 protonsCharge of 3 electrons=+3=-3Charge of 7 protonsCharge of 10 electrons=+3=-2Total charge = 0 Total charge = +1
4. Formation of anions (negative ions):
y
An atom that accept electrons into their valence shells to achieve the stable octetelectron arrangement similar to noblegases is called anions (more electronsthan protons ± non-metal atoms).
y
Non-metal atoms are electronegative ±group 15, 16 and 17.
y
Example: N
e
-
 
N
3-
 
 
Charge of 7 protonsCharge of 7 electrons=+7=-7Charge of 7 protonsCharge of 10 electrons=+7=-10Total charge = 0 Total charge = -3
5. Formation of ionic bonds: A. Formation of potassium chloride, KCl(a) Figure below shows the transfer of oneelectron from a potassium atom to achlorine atom to form the ionic compoundpotassium chloride.(b) The oppositely-charged ions, K
+
and Cl
-
,formed are then strongly attracted to eachother by strong electrostatic forces in thecrystal lattice, called ionic bonds or electrovalent bonds. Hence, the ioniccompound potassium chloride with theformula KCl is formed.B. Formation of calcium sulphide, CaS(a) Figure below shows the transfer of electronsfrom a calcium atom to a sulphur atom toform the ionic compound calcium sulphide.
 
CHEMISTRY 2010
THEME: Matter Around Us3
(b) The oppositely-charged ions, Ca
2+
and S
2-
,formed are then strongly attracted to eachother by ionic bond. Hence, the ioniccompound calcium sulphide with the formulaCaS is formed.C. Formation of magnesium fluoride, MgF
 
2
 (a) Figure below shows the transfer of twoelectrons from a magnesium atom to twofluorine atoms to form the ionic compoundmagnesium fluoride.(b) The oppositely-charged ions, Mg
2+
and F
-
,formed are then strongly attracted to eachionic bond. Hence, the ionic compoundmagnesium fluoride with the formula MgF
2
 is formed.
5.3Covalent Bonds
1. Covalent bonds are formed when atoms of non-metals combine with each other to forma molecule ± share electron to achievestable noble gas electron arrangements.2. Non-metal elements are from Group 15, 16,17, carbon and silicon from Group 14 inPeriodic Table.Lewis Structure1. The Lewis structure of a molecule showshow the valence electrons of the atoms arearranged in the molecule.2. Example:(a) A helium atom has two valenceelectrons. Therefore, its Lewisstructure is as follows:
e
 (b) A neon atom has eight valenceelectrons. Its Lewis structure is asfollows:
Ne
 Types of covalent bonds1. During the formation of a covalent bondbetween two atom, each atom contributes 1,2 and 3 electrons for sharing.2. In so doing, the two atoms share 1, 2 or 3pairs of electrons so as to achieve stablenoble gas electron arrangements.3. When two atoms share one pair of electrons, a single covalent bond is formed.
Y
x
YY
x
or 
 
4. When two atoms share two pairs of electrons, a double covalent bond is formed.
XY+XXYYor 
xxxx
 
5. When two atoms share three pairs of electrons, a triple covalent bond is formed.
XY+XXYYor 
xxxxxx
 6. Hence, there are three types of covalentbonds:(a) Single covalent bond(b) Double covalent bond(c) Triple covalent bond7. Remember that during the formation of covalent bonds:(a) An atom of a Group 17 elementcontributes one electron for sharing.(b) An atom of a Group 16 elementcontributes two electrons for sharing.(c) A hydrogen atom contributes oneelectron for sharing.(d) A silicon or carbon atom from Group14 contributes four electrons for sharing with two or more atoms of other elements.Formation of single covalent bonds A. Formation of chlorine molecule, Cl
2
 Lewis structure:
ClClClCl+
xxxxxxx
ClCl
xxxxxxx
or 
 B. Formation of water molecule, H
2
OLewis structure:
HOH++
xxxxxx
HOH
xxxxxx
or HOH
 Formation of double covalent bondsFormation of oxygen molecule, O
2
 Lewis structure:
O+O
xxxxxx
OO
xxxxxx
or OO
 Formation of triple covalent bondsFormation of nitrogen molecule, N
2
 Lewis structure:
NN
xxxxx
+NN
xxxxx
or NN
 Method to deduce the formulae of covalentcompounds1. Covalent compounds are usually formedfrom non-metal elements.2. Valency of a non-metal is the number of electrons needed by an atom of the non-metal to achieve a stable noble gas electronarrangement. It shows the combining power of the element.
 
ElementNumber of valence electronsValency
Group 17 7 1Group 16 6 2Group 15 5 3Carbon and siliconin Group 144 4Hydrogen 1 1
3. The formula of a molecule formed betweentwo non-metals R and T can be determinedas follows. Let say R has a valency of 
andQ has a valency of 
.
Element R Q
Valency
 
 Number of atoms combined
 
 
Simplest whole number ratio of the number of atoms of R : Q =
:
=
:
 

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