Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Philosopher Of Buddhism

Philosopher Of Buddhism

Ratings: (0)|Views: 21 |Likes:
Published by UloveUthink

More info:

Published by: UloveUthink on Jul 11, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as TXT, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





People only learn about Buddhism are usually impressed by how clear, direct andpractical Dhamma principles contained in the basic sciences, such as the Four Noble Truths, Noble Eightfold Path and the three-stage improvement. These transparent science are affordable for all seriously seeking a way to liberation from suffering. However, when such persons are confronted with the doctrine of rebirth,often recoil from it, insisting that it is meaningless. Consider the rebirth ofthe point at which the Buddhist doctrine strays from its course and tumbles from the great path of reason in the realm of sci-fi fantasy and speculation. Evencontemporary scholars of Buddhism seem to have to seriously address the problemwith the doctrine of rebirth. Some people ignore this "ancient Indian metaphysics," recognizing it as an unnecessary cultural baggage, which the Buddha remainedin his teachings, just as evidence of respect for the views of his era. Otherssee it as a metaphor for mental states are subject to change man who sees the world's rebirth as symbols of psychological archetypes. Some critics have even called into question the authenticity of the texts speak of the revival, treating them as later interpolations.If you look at the Pali suttas, we can prove that these critical assertions haveno greater justification. Learning about the rebirth occurs commonly in the Pali Canon and is so closely linked to the multitude of other Buddhist doctrines that would mean getting rid of its violation of the foundations of the Dhamma. Furthermore, when the suttas speak of a possible resurgence in five worlds - in hell, the animal world, a world of humans, ghosts and heaven - do not suggest thatthese names should be treated symbolically. On the contrary - clearly shows thatthe revival to take place 'with the disintegration of the body, after death, which clearly shows that the theory of rebirth should be taken literally.In this essay, I would not want to expatiate on the pertinence of the scientifictheory of rebirth, but to demonstrate that the doctrine of cycles of birth anddeath is meaningful. My argument is twofold: first, to prove that the theory isunderstandable in itself, as well as in regard to the Dhamma, and secondly, it helps us to rediscover the meaning of existence in the world. I will try to demonstrate the merits of these theses in relation to ethics, ontology, and soteriology. Do not fear those big words, their meaning will become clear soon.First, the doctrine of rebirth make sense in relation to the ethical sphere. Forthe early Buddhist concept of rebirth is a key point of ethics as such, becauseit provides incentives to avoid evil and do good. In this context, the theory of rebirth is connected with the doctrine of karma, which demonstrates that marked all our moral actions, our proper and improper actions have the inherent powerof producing effects equivalent to the moral values of those acts. The twin concepts of karma and rebirth show that between action and tangible quality of ourlives, there is a moral balance: good deeds produce good effects and bad - negative.It seems obvious that such a balance can not be achieved within one lives. Because we can see, often to the great bitterness that unscrupulous people sometimessuccessful, achieve success and respect, while those living in the righteousnessof exemplary bend under the burden of misery and suffering. To the moral principle of balance to work, you need some kind of continuation of life, because karma can bring due reward only if the individual stream of consciousness does not cease to exist after death. There are two forms of post-mortem existence: the eternal life in heaven or hell, or the consequence of being born again. Of these two alternatives the hypothesis of rebirth seems to be much more compatible with the objectives of moral justice, eternal life than the afterlife. How can you believe every good deed has ever exhausted its potential, and every evil deed, evenif it is not known how vile, do not condemn to eternal damnation.And what if the stubborn persistence in the theory of moral balance is a mere illusion, a utopian demand tip to indifferent and deaf to our cries of the univers
e? There is no logical way to prove the validity of the theory of rebirth and karma. Perhaps the naturalists are right to say that the existence of unit ends with death, and with it any prospect of moral restitution. Despite everything, I believe that this hypothesis does not withstand the confrontation with one of thedeepest human feelings indicating the existence of some moral justice, which ultimately always triumphs. To prove this assumption Let's take two examples of extremely different, ethically-moving attitude. Take the first example of Adolf Hitler, directly responsible for the deaths of millions of people, and for the second example, let us serve the man who devotes his life trying to save someone from death unknown. If we assume that there is no life after death, involving these two people is ultimately the same fate. Perhaps his death, Hitler had experienced some pangs of conscience, and our nameless hero for a few seconds he had a joyful awareness of meeting the noble deed. But that's it - nothing more, exceptperhaps persistence in memory of others. Both are destroyed, leaving only the dead body.At this point, naturalists claim may be true: those who believe in life after death and moral retribution simply trying to curse reality. But I believe that something in us clearly precludes attribution to Hitler and our hero wspólczujacemuthe same destination. The reason why the opposition is growing in us a profoundinsight, telling us that the world works a certain moral principle directing the course of events in such a way that our good and bad deeds produce results relevant to the acts committed by us. So when naturalists affirm that this feelingis only a projection of our idealistic views about the world, I call attention to the fact that the very need to articulate the moral importance of justice is loud and goes beyond the simple psychology. Our subjective moral sense is in factreflected in objective reality, where the moral principle of balance is not only our projection, but something built into the base of reality.The above considerations are not intended to make the necessary basis for the theory of ethical rebirth. Buddha did not try to build ethics on the basis of theidea of karma or rebirth again, but used a purely naturalistic argument, which does not take for granted, or life after death, or the operation of karma. Summary of his teachings may be simple ascertainment that we should not treat other people badly: to hurt, steal, lie, and sexually abuse because they do not want tobe treated in this way. However, despite the fact that Buddha did not cemented his ethics on the theory of rebirth, is considered a belief in rebirth and karmaas an important incentive to pursue a moral life. When we realize that our actions can turn to us with interest and decide on our future and bringing prosperityor misfortune, it will give us enough motivation to avoid immoral behavior andstrive towards good.Buddha has included a belief in re-incarnation and karma in the definition of right view, and the denial of their existence called the wrong view. The desire for a successful fruit of his own actions should not be the main theme to pursue amoral life, but to accept these teachings, inspires and supports the pursuit ofethical ideals. These twin principles allow the perception of a wider perspective through which we endeavor to develop a noble life. Also shows that our current living conditions, our character, capabilities, advantages and disadvantages are the result of actions made in previous incarnations. If we realize the current situation as a reflection of karmic past, we come to the conclusion that our current actions will be the legacy that will pass the heirs, namely ourselves infuture lives. Learning about the revival makes it possible to face the future with patience, dignity and courage. If we understand that we always have a chanceto rehabilitate - regardless of how degrading it is limited, and our current situation - we prefer to direct our will towards good deeds, being aware of their positive impact in the future. Through the activity of body, speech and mind, wecan make a change of heart, and through the transformation we were able to overcome all internal and external obstacles and to approach the final goal.
Science of rebirth and karma does not merely indicate a principle of moral responsibility - have a far greater ethical significance. Underline the fact that both shape our lives by the karmic past, as well as the fact that we live in a universe full of ethical values. Both of these theories represent the universe as anorderly, integrated whole to the levels of meaning that go beyond what is tangible. The levels to which we have access through direct observation or research do not cover the whole complexity of the universe. The ethical dimension of the universe, just as it is physically and biologically, there is a general principle, and the theory of rebirth and karma is for us to discover its effects. Despitethe fact that ethical governance is not discernible with the naked eye and cannot be captured using a scientific apparatus that does not mean that it does notexist. Our actions, and through them also our fate, being beyond the reach of ordinary perception, are subjected to control the moral law. Karma, acting over the entire sequence of lives, our volitional acts intertwined with the dynamics of the universe, making ethics an expression of its internal arrangement. Here comes now the ethics domain ontology, which we will look at later in this essay.Science of the revival, in conjunction with the law of karma assume that we livein a morally ordered universe in which our actions are producing results relevant to their ethical qualities. The law, which combines the fruits of their deedscan not be demonstrated experimentally in the same manner as the laws of physics and biology. However, this does not deny its existence. It means only that itworks right, like quarks and quasars, beyond the scope of sensory perception. Moral right, not a just a projection of subjective ideas, our volitional actions included in the all-encompassing cosmic order, which operates objectively, because regardless of our desires, ideas and faith. Therefore, when exposed to an ethics law, we are not doing so just to deserve praise, because acting according toethical standards simply unite the Dhamma, the universal principle of justice, standing at the heart of the universe.This leads us to the ontological aspect of Buddhist teaching of rebirth, hides in itself to understand the nature of things. For Buddhism, the process of rebirth is connected with the principle of interdependence covering the whole of existence. Sentient world is regulated by different orders of causality, in such a way that causality imposes higher authority over the lower. Therefore, the law ofkarma, dominating odradzenia process is also dominated by the lower areas of physical and biological causation, shaping their energy to reveal their full potential. Buddhism does not postulate the existence of a divine judge who manages theoperation of karma and rewards or punishes us for our deeds. Karmic process operates autonomously, without any supervisor, only by virtue of innate potentialsvolitional acts. Our actions, laced with other orders depending on the vast anddense network, produce consequences in a manner so natural, like seeds which give rise to new plants.To understand how the effects of food produced in the process of rebirth, we must reverse our usual understanding of the relationship between matter and consciousness. Under the influence of materialistic views, we assume that matter is thecause of the existence of consciousness. Seeing as the body appears in this world, and matures along with the mind, tacitly accepting them as the basis for ourexistence, and the mind and consciousness as an evolutionary by-product of theblind, the material processes. In this way the material gets the honorable nameof "objective reality" and the mind is treated as an accidental intruder in theuniverse inherently devoid of feeling.But from the perspective of Buddhism, the material world and consciousness coexist on an equal footing, creating a relationship of mutual formation. Just as consciousness can not exist without a body to serve as the physical media and the world as a sphere of manifestation, so no physical body, nor the world can not exist without some kind of consciousness that would be recognized as an organism and the world. Despite the fact that neither matter nor consciousness can not be

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->