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MRSA-Why and How MRSA Moved Into Community

MRSA-Why and How MRSA Moved Into Community

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Published by: Dr Kadiyali M Srivatsa on Jun 16, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Invented by Doctors to Reduce Needle Stick Injury &Spreading Antibiotic Resistant Bacterial Infection in Hospitals
Emerging New Infections Are Threatening Mankind
 Advances in medicine was made possible after Penicillin (1940s) and venous access (1950s) wasintroduced. Since disposable plastic device IV Cannulae was used,antibiotic resistantstrains (MRSA, CA-MRSA ,Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL),ClostridiumandEcoli) has in tandem increased. Noskin and others report that a patient infected with MRSA isfive times more likely todiethan other patients. Wyllie
et al.
report adeath rate of 34 percent within 30 days amongpatients infected with MRSA , while amongCA-MRSA patients the death rate was similarat 27% and is said to be increasing inrisk groups."Number pharmaceutical companies, there were active decisions taken that antibiotic research wasnot going to be profitable enough to meet their obligation to shareholders," says Talbot, aninfectious-disease specialist and consultant to drug companies. "So they decided to go for drugsthat would be taken for a lifetime — drugs for diabetes or high blood pressure — rather than drugsto be taken for a week." (Ref:USA Toady; Super bug spread fear far and wide)Harmless bacteria that people carry on their skin, has now suddenly becomes a dangerous predatorimmune to antibiotics, chemical wash and antiseptic is threatening us all.Community-AcquiredMethicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA)entering blood with helpless white bloodcells unable to stop them. HA-MRSA occurs most frequently among people with weakened immunesystems-possibly 1 in 20 patients may have MRSA, according to a study conducted by the Association for Professionals in Infection and Epidemiology (APIC). HA-MRSA is often responsiblefor surgical wound infections, urinary tract infections, and pneumonia in hospitals. CA-MRSA, onthe other hand, strikes in otherwise healthy people and children in the community. They manifestsitself in soft-tissue infections, also in such skin conditions as boils, pimples or an abscess, whoseinitial appearance mirrors a insect bite and is often dismissed as trivial.It’s occurred to us yet again that microbes just might be more determined to survive than we are. And that they were here before we were, and that maybe our hard-hitting pre-emptive war on bugs—with the many vaccines and antibiotics routinely used—is only making things worse.This may sounds like a B-movie on the Sci-Fi Channel, but the CA-MRSA scare is all too real - one of several health alerts this year that proved just how vulnerable we are despite all our scientificknow-how andadvances in medicine. Invasive procedures, operations, plastic surgery, transplant surgery, hip or knee replacement, open heart surgery, bypass and minor surgical procedures willcome to a grinding halt. This is the year we learn that the very technology we’ve created to help uslive more comfortable and, yes, often healthier lives will turn around andbite us-hard.
Intra-Venous Cannula
The use of intravenous cannula is an integral part of patient care in hospitals. These devices areused for the administration of fluid, nutrients, medications, blood products and to monitor thehaemodynamic status of a patient.Peripheral venous cannulae and catheter introducing device are the devices most frequently usedfor vascular access. Insertion of cannula and catheter into a blood vessel in patients and veterinary medicine is probably the most common invasive medical procedure performed. In modern medicalpractice, up to 80 percent of hospitalised patients receive intravenous therapy at some point duringtheir stay. There is a growing awareness in the medical community that the cannulation techniqueneeds to be reviewed.However, intravenous devices provide apotential route for micro-organisms to enter the bloodstream resulting in a variety of local or systemic infections.Our hypothesis “ Multiple punctures tointroduce cannula is a major cause of spreading hospital infections” was proved by doctors in Winchester, UK 
No new cases of MRSA have been reported at the Royal Hampshire County Hospital in Winchester and the Andover War Memorial Hospital since the use of cannulae has hadto be authorised by a specialist and signed off by a doctor to ensure that they are used only whenabsolutely necessary. Once in place, the tubes are flushed with a saline solution and inspecteddaily. No MRSA bloodstream & wound infections since November 2007 when compared to 11MRSA during the same period before last year.If this same practice were adopted nationwide by the NHS, MRSA levels would fall sharply but isnot practically possible and could be ethically un acceptable.These cannularelated infections were often said to be associated with prolonged hospitalisation,increased morbidity and mortality. In order to minimise the risk of infection associated with thesedevices CDC produced the guidelines on “Prevention of infections related to peripheral intravenousdevices” to all healthcare practitioners involved in the care of adult patients. These guidelines aimsto serve as a guide for practitioners who are involved in caring for or treating adult patients withperipheral intravenous devices. The recommendations are based on the available research findings.However, there are some aspects in which there is insufficient published research and, therefore,consensus of experts in the field has been utilised to provide guidelines specific to conventionalpractice.

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