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Biology Pollution

Biology Pollution

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Published by Jia Ping Jia Ping

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Published by: Jia Ping Jia Ping on Jul 12, 2010
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11/05/2012

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Pollution is an undesirable change in the chemical, physicalor biological characteristics of the natural environment. Theenvironment is polluted with harmful substances or pollutants.
 
Pollutant is any substance that is present in an excessiveamount in the environment as a result of human activities. Ithas damaging effects on living organism.
 
Pollutants may be toxic substances such as pesticides or natural constituents of the atmosphere, such as carbondioxide. They may affect the soil, rivers, seas or theatmosphere.
 
There are four types of pollution:
Water  pollutionThermal pollution Noise pollutionAir  pollution
Typesof  pollutions
 
 
1. AIR POLLUTION
p
 
Air pollution occurs when pollutants such as smoke, dirt, dustand poisonous gases are released into the air endangeringhuman lives and other living organisms.
p
 
M
ost air pollutants come from burning of fossil fuels frommotor vehicles.
p
 
E
xamples of air pollutants arecarbon monoxide(CO),carbon dioxide(CO
2
),nitrogen oxide(NO) andsulphur dioxide(SO
2
).Pollutant Sources
E
ffects
Carbon
m
onoxide
 (
C
O)
y
 
Odourless, colourlessand toxic gas.
 
y
 
Incomplete combustionof fossil fuels.
y
 
Combustion sourcessuch as motor vehicleexhaust, smoke fromfires, engine fumes.
H
ealth
 
y
 
Combines with haemoglobin to formcarboxyhaemoglobin which reduces the ability of the blood to transport oxygen.
y
 
E
arly symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning areheadaches, nausea and fatigue.
y
 
Prolonged exposure can lead to brain damage andeven death.
Carbon
 
dioxide
(
C
O2)
y
 
Odourless,colourless gas.
y
 
Combustion of fossilfuels.
H
ealth
 
y
 
Causes emphysema.
 
y
 
Affects respiration.
 Bu
ilding
 
y
 
Contributes to acid rain which damages buildings.
Cli
m
ate
 
y
 
Contributes to greenhouse effect and globalwarming.
N
itrogen
m
onoxide
 (NO)
and
 
nitrogen
 
dioxide
(NO
2
)
y
 
 NO-odourless,colourless gas.
y
 
 NO
2
-browmish gas
y
 
Combustion of fossilfuels.
y
 
M
otor vehicle exhaust
H
ealth
 
y
 
D
amages lung tissues.
y
 
M
ay cause bronchitis.
y
 
Irritates the eyes.
y
 
L
owers the body¶s defence against flu.
A
gric
u
lt
u
re
 
y
 
Contributes to acid rain which reduces the pH of soil, lakes and rivers.
Bu
ilding
 
y
 
Contributes to acid rain which destroys buildings.
Cli
m
ate
 
y
 
Contributes to acid rain.
S
u
lph
u
r
 
dioxide
(
S
O
2
)
y
 
Colourless, pungentand acidic gas.
y
 
Combustion of fossilfuels which containsulphur.
H
ealth
 
y
 
Irritates and damages the lining of the eyes, air  passages and lungs.
 
y
 
D
issolves in water.
y
 
Industries.
y
 
Causes coughing and wheezing.
y
 
Combines with rainwater to form acid rain that maycause skin diseases.
A
gric
u
lt
u
re
 
y
 
educes the growth of plants.
y
 
D
amages the leaves and may kill the plants.
y
 
Contributes to acid rain which lowers the pH of soil,lakes and rivers.
Bu
ildings
 
y
 
Contributes to acid rain which corrodes iron, copper,steel, aluminium and stonework, thereby destroying buildings.
Cli
m
ate
 
y
 
Causes acid rain.
F
ine
 
partic
u
lar
 m
atter
.
(Includessmoke, fumes, dust, ashand pollen)
y
 
Tiny and invisible
y
 
The composition of  particulate matter varies with place,season and whether conditions.
y
 
Combustion of fossilfuels from motor vehicles, agricultural burning and industries.
y
 
F
orest fire
y
 
Q
uarries and asbestosfactories
H
ealth
 
y
 
Irritates the eyes and respiratory tract.
y
 
Contributes to haze which can cause asthma attack,conjunctivitis, sore throat, bronchitis and reducedvisibility.
A
gric
u
lt
u
re
 
y
 
D
eposits on leaves and darkens vegetation.
y
 
B
locks stomata, thus lowering the rate of  photosynthesis. The crop yield is reduced.
Bu
ildings
 
y
 
Soot can darken building.
Cli
m
ate
 
y
 
Contributes to formation of haze and smog whichcan reduce light intensity.
L
ead
 
y
 
Combustion of fossilfuels
H
ealth
 
y
 
educes the sensitivity of the hands and feetcoordination.
y
 
etards mental development in children.
y
 
D
isrupts body¶s ability to produce new cell.
Hy
drocarbon
 
y
 
Combustion of fossilfuels from motor vehicles
H
ealth
 
y
 
Affects growth
y
 
Causes cancer 
p
 
Other than that, air pollution also causesacid rains. 
p
 
Acid rainonly occurs when the pH of the rain is less than5.0(natural rain water has a pH of about 5.4)

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