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Sisk-Transformations of Language in Modern Dystopias

Sisk-Transformations of Language in Modern Dystopias



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Transformations of Language in ModernDystopias
David W. Sisk 
Contributions to the Study of Science Fiction and Fantasy, Number 75
 Donald Palumbo, Series Adviser GREENWOOD PRESSWestport, Connecticut • London-iii-
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-PublicationData
Sisk David W., 1963-Transformations of language in modern dystopias / David W. Sisk. p. cm.--(Contributions to the study of science fiction and fantasy, ISSN 0193-6875; no. 75)Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 0-313-30411-4 (alk. paper)1. Science fiction, English--History and criticism. 2. Dystopias in literature. 3. Englishfiction--20th century--History and criticism. 4. American fiction--20th century--History andcriticism. 5. Science fiction, American--History and criticism. 6. More, Thomas, Sir, Saint,1478-1535--Influence. 7. More, Thomas, Sir, Saint, 1478-1535. Utopia. 8. Language andculture. 9. Future in literature. I. Title. II. Series.PR888.D96S57 1997823'.0876209372--dc21 97-9378British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data is available.Copyright © 1997 by David W. Sisk All rights reserved. No portion of this book may be reproduced, by any process or technique,without the express written consent of the publisher.Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 97-9378ISBN: 0-313-30411-4ISSN: 0193-68752First published in 1997Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881
An imprint of Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.Printed in the United States of America∞ +
 The paper used in this book complies with the Permanent Paper Standard issued by the National Information Standards Organization (Z39.48-1984).10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1-iv-
Copyright Acknowledgments
The author and publisher gratefully acknowledge permission for use of the followingmaterial:Excerpts from
The Handmaid's Tale
by Margaret Atwood. Copyright © 1985 by O. W.Toad, Ltd. First American Edition 1986. Reprinted by permission of Houghton MifflinCo. All rights reserved; reprinted by permission of Jonathan Cape, a division of RandomHouse UK Ltd.; used by permisison, McLelland & Stewart, Inc.Excerpts from "Tightrope-Walking Over Niagara Falls," by Geoff Hancock, pages 191-220 in
Margaret Atwood: Conversation
edited by Earl G. Ingersoll ( Princeton, NJ:Ontario Review Press, 1990) are reprinted by permission of Ontario Review Press.Excerpts from
 A Clockwork Orange
by Anthony Burgess. Copyright © 1962, 1989,renewed 1990 by Anthony Burgess. Reprinted by permission of W. W. Norton &Company, Inc.; reprinted by permission of William Heinemann Ltd.Excerpts from
 Language and Politics
by Noam Chomsky, edited by C. P. Otero( Montreal: Black Rose Books, 1988) are reprinted with the kind permission of Black Rose Books.Excerpts from
 Native Tongue
by Suzette Haden Elgin ( London: The Women's PressLtd., 1985) are reprinted by permission of Suzette Haden Elgin.Excerpts from "A Limited Perfection: Dystopia as Logos Game" by R. E. Foust,originally printed in
, Volume 15, Number 3 ( September 1982): pages 79-88.Reprinted by permission of 
.Excerpts from
 Riddley Walker 
by Russell Hoban ( New York: Washington Square Press,1982) are reprinted by permission of David Higham Associates (reference:Hoban/26.6.97).Excerpts from
 Brave New World 
by Aldous Huxley. Copyright 1932, 1960 by AldousHuxley. Reprinted by permission of HarperCollins Publishers, Inc.; reprinted by permission of Chatto & Windus and Mrs. Laura Huxley.Excerpts from
Utopia and Anti-Utopia in Modern Times
by Krishan Kumar ( Oxford:Basil Blackwell, 1987) are reprinted by permission of Basil Blackwell Publishers.Excerpts from
 Aldous Huxley: Satire and Structure
by Jerome Meckier ( London: Chatto& Windus, 1969) are reprinted by permission of Chatto & Windus.Excerpts from "Why I Write" in
Such Were the Joys
by George Orwell, copyright © 1953 by Sonia Brownell Orwell and renewed 1981 by Mrs. George K. Perutz, Mrs. MiriamGross, and Dr. Michael Dickson , Executors of the Estate of Sonia Brownell Orwell,reprinted by permission of Harcourt Brace & Company.Excerpts from "The Prevention of Literature" in
The Collected Essays, Journalism and 
 Letters of George Orwell, Volume IV: In Front of Your Nose
, 1945-1950, copyright ©1968 by Sonia Brownell Orwell and renewed 1996 by Mark Hamilton, Literary Executor of the Estate of Sonia Brownell Orwell, reprinted by permission of Harcourt Brace &Company; reprinted by permission of Martin Secker and Warburg Ltd.Excerpts from "Politics and the English Language" in
Shooting an Elephant and Other  Essays
by George Orwell, copyright © 1946 by Sonia Brownell Orwell and renewed1974 by Sonia Orwell, reprinted by permission of Harcourt Brace & Company.Excerpts from "Politics Vs. Literature: An Examination of 'Gulliver's Travels'" in
Shooting an Elephant and Other Essays
by George Orwell, copyright © 1950 by SoniaBrownell Orwell and renewed 1978 by Sonia Pitt-Rivers, reprinted by permission of Harcourt Brace & Company.Excerpts from
 Nineteen Eighty-four 
by George Orwell, copyright © 1949 by HarcourtBrace & Company and renewed 1977 by Sonia Brownell Orwell, reprinted by permissionof the publisher; reprinted by permission of Mark Hamilton as Literary Executor of theEstate of the late Sonia Brownell Orwell, and Martin Seeker & Warburg Ltd.Excerpts from
Cosmic Satire in the Contemporary Novel 
by John W. Tilton ( Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Presses, 1977) are reprinted by permission of AssociatedUniversity Presses, Inc.-v-
1. The Language of Dystopia
2. "Plus 'Parfaite' et Moins Libre"
3. "It's a Beautiful Thing, the Destruction of Words"
4. "Milk with Knives in It"
5. The Evolving Nature of Dystopian Languages
6. Language and the Feminist Dystopia
7. "You Never Know Where It Begun Realy"
8. Claiming Mastery Over the Word
Selected Bibliography
I gratefully acknowledge the contributions of the following scholars, whose comments andcriticisms were helpful in clarifying my thinking on a number of points: Howard M. Harper,Jr., William R. Harmon, Christopher Armitage, Pamela Cooper, Randall Hendrick, ConnieEble, Doris A. Helbig, Charles H. Heying, Barbara T. Ryan, and Julie M. Johnson. I could nothave completed this project without the loving support of my family, especially my parentsand my wife, Margaret, who never doubted that I would complete the task. I particularlythank my brother, John, who years ago asked a question about A
Clockwork Orange
that Ihave yet to answer, but the pursuit of which has led to this volume.-xi-

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