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IJCSIS Comparitive analysis of smart antenna array, basis of beamforming schemes and algorithems : A Review

IJCSIS Comparitive analysis of smart antenna array, basis of beamforming schemes and algorithems : A Review

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The smart antenna array is a group of antennas in which the relative phases of the respective signals feeding the antennas are varied in such a way that the effective radiation pattern of the array is reinforced in a desired direction and suppressed in undesired directions. Smart antenna are the array with smart signal processing algorithms used to identify spatial signal signature such as the direction of arriving of the signal, and use it to calculate beam forming vector, to track and locate the antenna beam on the mobile/target. An array antenna may be used to point a fixed radiation pattern, or to scan rapidly in azimuth or elevation. This paper explains the architecture; evolution of smart antenna differs from the basic format of antenna. The paper further discusses different Beamforming schemes and algorithms of smart antenna array.
The smart antenna array is a group of antennas in which the relative phases of the respective signals feeding the antennas are varied in such a way that the effective radiation pattern of the array is reinforced in a desired direction and suppressed in undesired directions. Smart antenna are the array with smart signal processing algorithms used to identify spatial signal signature such as the direction of arriving of the signal, and use it to calculate beam forming vector, to track and locate the antenna beam on the mobile/target. An array antenna may be used to point a fixed radiation pattern, or to scan rapidly in azimuth or elevation. This paper explains the architecture; evolution of smart antenna differs from the basic format of antenna. The paper further discusses different Beamforming schemes and algorithms of smart antenna array.

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11/20/2010

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Comparitive Analysis of Beamforming Schemes AndAlgorithems of Smart Antenna Array : A Review
Abhishek Rawat
 
, R. N. Yadav
 
and S. C. Shrivastava
 Maulana Azad National Institute Of Technology Bhopal, INDIA
 
 Abstract
— The smart antenna array is a group of antennas inwhich the relative phases of the respective signals feeding theantennas are varied in such a way that the effective radiationpattern of the array is reinforced in a desired direction andsuppressed in undesired directions.
Smart antenna
are the arraywith smart signal processing algorithms used to identify spatialsignal signature such as the direction of arriving of the signal,and use it to calculate beam forming vector, to track and locatethe antenna beam on the mobile/target. An array antenna maybe used to point a fixed radiation pattern, or to scan rapidly inazimuth or elevation. This paper explains the architecture;evolution of smart antenna differs from the basic format of antenna. The paper further discusses different Beamformingschemes and algorithms of smart antenna array.
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 
In the past, wireless communication systems are deployedwith fixed antenna system with fixed beam pattern. Suchconfiguration can not meet all the requirements of moderncommunication environments. Smart antennas [1]-[2] are thetechnology that use a fix set of antenna elements in an array.The signals from these antenna elements are combined to forma movable beam pattern that can be steered to the direction of the desired user. This characteristic makes the smart antennaand minimizes the impact of noise, interference, and other effects that degrade the signal quality. The adoption of smartantenna techniques in future wireless systems is expected tohave a significant impact on the efficient use of the spectrum,the minimization of the cost of establishing new wirelessnetworks, the optimization of service quality, and realizationof transparent operation across multi technology wirelessnetworks [2]-[5]. Smart antenna systems consist of multipleantenna elements at the transmitting and/or receiving side of the communication link, whose signals are processedadaptively in order to exploit the spatial dimension of themobile radio channel as shown in Fig.1. A smart antennareceiver can decode the data from a smart antenna transmitter this is the highest-performing configuration or it can simply provide array gain or diversity gain to the desired signalstransmitted from conventional transmitters and suppress theinterference. No manual placement of antennas is required.The smart antenna electronically adapts to the environment bylooking for pilot tones or beacons or by recovering certain
Fig. 1. Principle of smart antenna.
characteristics (such as a known alphabet or constantenvelope) that the transmitted signal is known to have. The base station antennas have up till now been omni directionalor sectored. This can be regarded as a "waste" of power asmost of it will be radiated in other directions than toward theuser and the other users will experience the power radiated inother directions as interference [4]. The idea of smartantennas is to use base station antenna patterns that are notfixed, but adapt to the current radio conditions. This can bevisualized as the antenna directing a beam toward thecommunication partner only.
II.
 
T
YPES
A
ND
G
EOMETRY OF
S
MART
A
NTENNA
S
YSTEMS
Smart antenna systems can improve link quality bycombating the effects of multi-path propagation or constructively exploiting the different paths, and increasecapacity by mitigating interference and allowing transmissionof different data streams from different antennas [6]. Smartantenna system technologies include intelligent antennas,
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 2, May 2010123http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
Fig.2 Different array geometries for smart antennasa) Uniform linear array b) Circular array;c) 2-Dimensional grid array d) 3-Dimensional grid arrayTABLE I. C
OMPARISON BETWEEN THREE BASIC TYPE OF SMARTANTENNA
.S. NoSwitched Lobe DynamicallyPhased ArrayAdaptiveArray
1.
 
A finite number of fixed, predefined patterns or combining strategies(sectors)It has fixednumber of arraywhich can beelectronicallysteered in a particular direction.An infinite number of patterns(scenario-based) thatare adjusted in realime.
2.
 
This kind of antenna will beeasier to implementin existing cellstructures than themore sophisticatedadaptive arrays,which also meanslow cost.Easy tomoveelectronically. Inthis case, thereceived power ismaximized.Complex innature at the timeof installment and best performancein the three typesof smart antennas.3.
 
The signalstrength can degraderapidly during the beam switching.It does notnull theinterference.Excellent performance ininterference.
 phased array, digital beam forming, adaptive antennasystems, and others. Smart antenna systems are customarilycategorized, however, as switched beam, dynamically phasedarray and adaptive array systems [5].Switched lobe creates agroup of overlapping beams that together result in omnidirectional coverage. The overlapping beam patterns pointingin slightly different directions. The SBSA creates a number of two-way spatial channels on a single conventional channel infrequency, time, or code. Each of these spatial channels hasthe interference rejection capabilities of the array, dependingon side lobe level [70].As the mobile moves, beam-switchingalgorithms for each call determine when a particular beamshould be selected to maintain the highest quality signal and
Fig.3. Comparison between three basic types of smart antenna.
the system continuously updates beam selection, ensuringthat user gets optimal quality for their call. The system scansthe outputs of each beam and selects the beam with the largestoutput power as well as suppresses interference arriving fromdirections away from the active beam’s center.[70]The dynamically phased array smart antenna is an antennawhich controls its own pattern by means of feed-back or feed-forward control, and it performs gain enhancement for desiredsignals whereas suppression for interfering signals The phasedarray antenna consists of multiple stationary antennaelements, which are fed coherently and use variable phase or time delay control at each element to scan a beam to givenangle in space. Array can be used in place of fix apertureantennas(reflectors , lenses ), because the multiplicity of elements allows more precise control of radiation pattern, thusresulting in lower side band and careful pattern shaping .The adaptive array system required sophisticated signal processing algorithm to distinguish between desired signal ,multipath signal and interference signal. It combine adaptivedigital signal processing to the spatial signal processing toachieve greater performance.
III.
 
B
EAMFORMING
S
CHEMES OF
S
MART ANTENNAARRAY
The Beamforming scheme is important factor toconvert antenna array into smart antenna. These schemes tiltthe radiation pattern into desired direction depending uponconditions. The simplest beamformer has all the weights of equal magnitudes, and is called a conventional Beamformer or a delay-and sum beamformer. This array has unityresponse in the look direction, which means that the meanoutput power of the processor, due to a source in the look direction, is the same as the source power to steer the array ina particular direction, the phases are selected appropriately.This beamformer provides the maximum output SNR for the
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 2, May 2010124http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
case that no directional jammer operating at the samefrequency exists, but it is not effective in the presence of directional jammers, intentional or unintentional. Generallynull steering and optimal Beamformer are the commonlyused in Smart antenna array .
 A.
 
 Null-Steering Beamformer 
 Null-steering beamforming techniques require not onlycontrol of phase (as for conventional beamforming), but alsoindependent control of the amplitude. A null-steering Beamformer can cancel a plane wave arriving from a knowndirection, producing a null in the response pattern in thisdirection. The process works well for canceling stronginterference, and could he repeated for multiple-interferencecancellation. But although it is easy to implement for signalinterference, it becomes cumbersome as the number of interference grows. Although the beam pattern produce by thisBeamformer has nulls in the directions of interference [5], it isnot designed to minimize the uncorrelated noise at the arrayoutput. This can be achieved by selecting weights thatminimize the mean output power, subject to the aboveconstraints. The flexibility of array weighting to beingadjusted to specify the array pattern is an important property.This may be exploited to cancel directional sources operatingat the same frequency as that of the desired source, providedthese are not in the direction of the desired source. Insituations where the directions of these interferences areknown, cancellation is possible by placing the nulls in the pattern corresponding to these directions and simultaneouslysteering the main beam in the direction of the desired signal.Beam forming in this way, where nulls are placed in thedirections of interferences, is normally known as null beamforming or null steering. The cancellation of one interference by placing a null in the pattern uses one degree of the freedomof the array. Null beam forming uses the directions of sourcestoward which nulls are placed for estimating the requiredweighting on each element. There are other schemes that donot require directions of all sources. A constrainedBeamforming scheme uses the steering vector associated withthe desired signal and then estimates the weights by solving anoptimization problem. Knowledge of the steering vector associated with the desired signal is required to protect thesignal from being canceled. In situations where the steeringvector associated with the signal is not available, a referencesignal is used for this purpose [54].
 B.
 
Optimal Beamformer 
The optimal Beamformer referred also as the optimalcombiner or minimum variance distortion less response beamformer (MVDR), does not require knowledge of the directionand the power level of interference ,nor the level of the background noise power , to maximize the output SNR. In thiscase the weights are computed assuming all source asinterference and processor is referred to as a noise alongmatrix inverse(NAMI) or maximum likelihood (ML) filter ,asit finds the ML estimate of the power of the signal source withthe above assumption. Minimizing the total output noise,while keeping the output signal constant, is the same asmaximizing the output SNR. This method requires the number of interferers to be less than or equal to L -2, as an array withL elements has L- 1 degrees of freedom, and one has beenutilized by the constraint in the look direction. This may nothe true in a mobile-communications environment with multi- path arrivals, and the array Beamformer may not be able toachieve the maximization of the output SNR by suppressingevery interference. However, the Beamformer does not haveto fully suppress interference, since an increase of a few
Fig 4 The structure of a narrow band beam-former[10] (a)withoutreference signal.and (b) using a reference signal.
decibels in the output SNR can make a large increase inthe channel capacity. In the optimization using referencesignal method, the processor requires a reference signalinstead of the desired signal direction (Fig.4). The array outputis subtracted from an available reference signal to generate anerror signal, which is used to control the weights. Weights areadjusted such that the mean squared error (MSE) between thearray output and the reference signal is minimized. Arrayswhich use zero reference signals are referred to as power-inversion adaptive arrays. The MSE minimization sachem is aclosed-loop method, compared to the open –loop scheme of MVDR (the ML filter), and the increased SNR is achieved atthe cost of some signal distortion, caused by the filter.
IV.
 
GENERALLY
 
USED
 
SMART
 
ANTENNAALGORITHMS
At present, there are many sorts of algorithms thatcan be applied to the smart antenna systems. People also putforward many modified algorithms on the basis of the basicalgorithms to adapt to different performance demands.Generally, there are two categories: blind algorithm and non blind algorithm. The algorithm that needs the reference signalto adjust the weights gradually is referred to as the blindalgorithm. Besides, when the directions of the signals areknown, we can determine the channel response firstly, andthen determine the weights according to certain principle.This kind of algorithms includes LMS, RLS, SMI, LCMVand so on. Inversely, the blind algorithm doesn’t need thereference signal. The receiver can estimate the transmitted
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 2, May 2010125http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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