case that no directional jammer operating at the samefrequency exists, but it is not effective in the presence of directional jammers, intentional or unintentional. Generallynull steering and optimal Beamformer are the commonlyused in Smart antenna array .
Null-steering beamforming techniques require not onlycontrol of phase (as for conventional beamforming), but alsoindependent control of the amplitude. A null-steering Beamformer can cancel a plane wave arriving from a knowndirection, producing a null in the response pattern in thisdirection. The process works well for canceling stronginterference, and could he repeated for multiple-interferencecancellation. But although it is easy to implement for signalinterference, it becomes cumbersome as the number of interference grows. Although the beam pattern produce by thisBeamformer has nulls in the directions of interference , it isnot designed to minimize the uncorrelated noise at the arrayoutput. This can be achieved by selecting weights thatminimize the mean output power, subject to the aboveconstraints. The flexibility of array weighting to beingadjusted to specify the array pattern is an important property.This may be exploited to cancel directional sources operatingat the same frequency as that of the desired source, providedthese are not in the direction of the desired source. Insituations where the directions of these interferences areknown, cancellation is possible by placing the nulls in the pattern corresponding to these directions and simultaneouslysteering the main beam in the direction of the desired signal.Beam forming in this way, where nulls are placed in thedirections of interferences, is normally known as null beamforming or null steering. The cancellation of one interference by placing a null in the pattern uses one degree of the freedomof the array. Null beam forming uses the directions of sourcestoward which nulls are placed for estimating the requiredweighting on each element. There are other schemes that donot require directions of all sources. A constrainedBeamforming scheme uses the steering vector associated withthe desired signal and then estimates the weights by solving anoptimization problem. Knowledge of the steering vector associated with the desired signal is required to protect thesignal from being canceled. In situations where the steeringvector associated with the signal is not available, a referencesignal is used for this purpose .
The optimal Beamformer referred also as the optimalcombiner or minimum variance distortion less response beamformer (MVDR), does not require knowledge of the directionand the power level of interference ,nor the level of the background noise power , to maximize the output SNR. In thiscase the weights are computed assuming all source asinterference and processor is referred to as a noise alongmatrix inverse(NAMI) or maximum likelihood (ML) filter ,asit finds the ML estimate of the power of the signal source withthe above assumption. Minimizing the total output noise,while keeping the output signal constant, is the same asmaximizing the output SNR. This method requires the number of interferers to be less than or equal to L -2, as an array withL elements has L- 1 degrees of freedom, and one has beenutilized by the constraint in the look direction. This may nothe true in a mobile-communications environment with multi- path arrivals, and the array Beamformer may not be able toachieve the maximization of the output SNR by suppressingevery interference. However, the Beamformer does not haveto fully suppress interference, since an increase of a few
Fig 4 The structure of a narrow band beam-former (a)withoutreference signal.and (b) using a reference signal.
decibels in the output SNR can make a large increase inthe channel capacity. In the optimization using referencesignal method, the processor requires a reference signalinstead of the desired signal direction (Fig.4). The array outputis subtracted from an available reference signal to generate anerror signal, which is used to control the weights. Weights areadjusted such that the mean squared error (MSE) between thearray output and the reference signal is minimized. Arrayswhich use zero reference signals are referred to as power-inversion adaptive arrays. The MSE minimization sachem is aclosed-loop method, compared to the open –loop scheme of MVDR (the ML filter), and the increased SNR is achieved atthe cost of some signal distortion, caused by the filter.
At present, there are many sorts of algorithms thatcan be applied to the smart antenna systems. People also putforward many modified algorithms on the basis of the basicalgorithms to adapt to different performance demands.Generally, there are two categories: blind algorithm and non blind algorithm. The algorithm that needs the reference signalto adjust the weights gradually is referred to as the blindalgorithm. Besides, when the directions of the signals areknown, we can determine the channel response firstly, andthen determine the weights according to certain principle.This kind of algorithms includes LMS, RLS, SMI, LCMVand so on. Inversely, the blind algorithm doesn’t need thereference signal. The receiver can estimate the transmitted
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 2, May 2010125http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500