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السبكتروفوتومتر

السبكتروفوتومتر

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Published by Islam ALSAADY

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Islam ALSAADY on Jul 12, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/18/2013

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This PDF is Created by Simpo Word to PDF unregistered version - http://www.simpopdf.com
1
ﻲﺋﻮﻀﻟﺍ
 
ﻒﻴﻄﻟﺍ
 
ﺱﺎﻴﻘﻣ
 ﺮﺘﻣﻮﺗﻮﻓﻭﺮﺘﻜﺒﺴﻟﺍ 
 Spectrophotometer 
 
ﺔﻣﺪﻘﻤﻟا
:
 
تﺎﻔﺻاﻮﻤﻟا
 
 ﺔﻠﻤﺟ
 
ﻦﻤﺿ
 
تﺎﯿﻄﻌﻤﻟاو
 
ﻢﯿﻘﻟا
 
ﻦﻣ
 
ً ﺔﻠﻤﺟ
 
ﺮﺻﺎﻌﻤﻟا
 
ﻢﻟﺎﻌﻟا
 
ﺎھﺪﮭﺸﯾ
 
ﻲﺘﻟا
 
 ﺔﻌﺳاﻮﻟا
 
 ﺔﯿﻤﻠﻌﻟا
 
تارﻮﻄﺘﻟا
 
ﺐﻛاو ﺳ
 
 ﮫﻌﻣ
 
تﺪﺘﺣا
 
ٍﻢﻟﺎﻋ
 
ﻲﻓ
 
ﻖﯾﻮﺴﺘﻟاو
 
 ﺔﺴﻓﺎﻨﻤﻟا
 
 ﮫُ ﺠِ ﺘﻨُ ﻣ
 
ﻦﻤﻀﯿﻟ
 
ﺞَ ﺘﻨُ ﻣ
 
يأ
 
ﺎﮭﺑ
 
ﻊﺘﻤﺘﯾ
 
نأ
 
ﺐﺠﯾ
 
ﻲﺘﻟاﺮﯾﻮﻄﺘﻟاو
 
 ﺔﺴﻓﺎﻨﻤﻟا
 
تﺎﺳﺎﯿو
 
ﻮﻛﻻاو
 
وﺰﯾﻹﺎﻛ
 
ةدﻮﺠﻟا
 
تادﺎﮭﺷ
 
رﻮﮭﻈﻟ
 
 ﺔﺟﺎﺤﻟا
 
تزﺮﺒﻓ
 
،
... 
رﻮﻨﻟاو
 
كﺎﻜﺘﺣﻻاو
 
ﻞﯿﺴﻐﻟا
 
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
تﺎﯿﺗﺎﺒﺜﻟا
 
ﺖﺤﺒﺻأ
 
ﺪﻘﻓ
 
 ﺔﯿﺠﯿﺴﻨﻟا
 
تﺎﻋﺎﻨﺼﻟا
 
ﻢﻟﺎﻋ
 
ﻲﻓ
 
ﺎﻣأ
...
داز
 
ﻞﺑ
 
،
 
ًﺎﯾدﺎﻋ
 
ًاﺮﻣأا
 
تﺎﻛﺮﺷ
 
ﺎﮭﯿﻠﻋ
 
ﻖﻔﺘﺗ
 
ﻲﺘﻟا
 
حﺎﻤﺴﻟا
 
 ﺔﺟرد
 
لﺎﺠﻣ
 
ﻦﻤﺿ
 
نﻮﻠﻟا
 
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
ﻖﯿﻗﺪﺘﻟا
 
ﻚﻟذ
 
ﻰﻠﻋﻰﻋﺪﺘﺳا
 
ﺎﻣ
 
اﺬھو
 
،
 
ﻊﯾزﻮﺘﻟاو
 
جﺎﺘﻧﻹ
 
ﺐﺴﺤﺑ
 
ﺮﺧﻵ
 
ٍﻞﻜﺷ
 
ﻦﻣ
 
ﻦﯾﺎﺒﺘﯾ
 
يﺬﻟا
 
ﻲﺼﺨﺸﻟا
 
ﻞﻣﺎﻌﻟا
 
ﺪﯿﯿﺤﺘﻟ
 
 ﺔﯿﻟﻵا
 
قﺮﻄﻟا
 
دﺎﻤﺘﻋا
:
،
 
ﻲﺒﺼﻌﻟا
 
قﺎھرﻹا
 
 ﺔﺟرد
 
،
 
ﻦﺴﻟا
 
ﺎﮭﺣﺎﺠﻧ
 
 ﻂﺒﺗﺮﯾ
 
ﻲﺘﻟا
 
 ﺔﻧرﺎﻘﻤﻟا
 
 ﺔﻘﯾﺮطو
 
ﻲﺋﻮﻀﻟا
 
رﺪﺼﻤﻟا
 
 ﺔﯿﻋﻮﻧ
 
ﻞﺜﻣ
 
نﻮﻠﻟا
 
 ﺔﻧرﺎﻘﻣ
 
 ﺔﯿﻠﻤﻌﺑ
 
 ﺔﻄﯿﺤﻤﻟا
 
ﻞﻣاﻮﻌﻟا
 
ﺾﻌﺑوةراﺮﺤﻟاو
 
ةءﺎﺿﻹا
 
 ﺔﺟرﺪﺑﻞﻜﺸﻟا
 
ﻲﻓ
 
ﺎﻤﻛ
1: 
ﻞﻜﺸﻟا
:1
1-
ﻲﺋﺮﻤﻟا
 
ﻒﯿﻄﻟا
 
وأ
 
ﺔﯿﺋﺮﻤﻟا
 
ﺔﻌﺷﻷا
:
ردﺎﺼﻤﻟا
 
ﻦﻣ
 
مأ
 
ﺲﻤﺸﻟا
 
ﻦﻣ
 
نﺎﻛأ
 
ءاﻮﺳ
 
ﺎﻨﻟﻮﺣ
 
ﻦﻣ
 
دراﻮﻟا
 
ءﻮﻀﻟا
 
ﻒﻟﺄﺘﯾ
 
ﻞﻜﺸﻟا
 
ﻲﻓ
 
ﺎﻤﻛ
 
 ﺔﺟﻮﻤﻟا
 
لﻮط
 
 ﺔﻔﻠﺘﺨﻣ
 
 ﺔﻌﺷأ
 
 ﺔﻋﻮﻤﺠﻣ
 
ﻦﻣ
 
 ﺔﯿﻌﻨﺼﻟا
2
رﻮﺷﻮﻣ
 
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
ﺎھﺮﯾﺮﻤﺘﺑ
 
 ﺔﯿﺋﺮﻤﻟا
 
 ﺔﻌﺷﻷا
 
ﻞﻠﺤﺘﺗو
 
، ﻟا
 
 ﺔﯿﺳﺎﺳﻷا
 
ﺎﮭﻧاﻮﻟأ
 
ﻰﻟإ
 
ﻲﺟﺎﺟزﻞﻜﺸﻟا
 
ﻲﻓ
 
دراو
 
ﻮھ
 
ﺎﻤﻛ
 
 ﺔﻌﺒﺴ
3
ﻒﻠﺘﺨﺗ
 
ﻦﯿﻌﻣ
 
ﻲﺋﻮﺿ
 
رﺪﺼﻣ
 
ﺮﯿﺛﺄﺗ
 
ﺖﺤﺗو
 
اﺬﻜھو
 
،
 
ﺐﺒﺴﯾ
 
 ﺔﺴﻜﻌﻨﻤﻟا
 
 ﺔﻌﺷﻷا
 
تﺎﺟﻮﻣ
 
لاﻮطأ
 
ﻲﻓ
 
ًﺎﻓﻼﺘﺧا
 
ﺐﺒﺴﯾ
 
ﺎﻣ
 
نﻮﻠﻤﻟا
 
ﻢﺴﺠﻟا
 
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
ةدراﻮﻟا
 
 ﺔﯿﺋﻮﻀﻟا
 
تﺎﺟﻮﻤﻟا
 
لاﻮطأﺧا
 
ﺎﮭﻧأ
 
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
فﺮﻌﺗ
 
ﻲﺘﻟاو
 
مﺰﯾﺮﯿﻣﺎﺘﯿﻤﻟا
 
ةﺮھﺎﻈﺑ
 
هﻮﻋﺪﻧ
 
ﺎﻣ
 
اﺬھو
 
،
 
نﺎﯿﻌﻠﻟ
 
ﺮھﺎﻈﻟا
 
نﻮﻠﻟﺎﺑ
 
ًﺎﻓﻼﺘﺧافﻼﺘﺧﺎﺑ
 
نﻮﻠﻟا
 
فﻼﺘ
 
ﻞﻜﺸﻟا
 
ﻲﻓ
 
ﺎﻤﻛ
 
ﻲﺋﻮﻀﻟا
 
رﺪﺼﻤﻟا
2. 
ﻞﻜﺸﻟا
2:
مﺰﯾﺮﯿﻣﺎﺘﯿﻤﻟا
 
ةﺮھﺎظ
 
This PDF is Created by Simpo Word to PDF unregistered version - http://www.simpopdf.com
2
ﺎﮭﯿﻛﺎﺤﯾ
 
ﻲﺋﻮﺿ
 
ٍرﺪﺼﻣ
 
عﺎﻨﻄﺻا
 
ﻦﻣ
 
مﻮﯿﻟا
 
ﻰﻟإ
 
ءﺎﻤﻠﻌﻟا
 
ﻦﻜﻤﺘﯾ
 
ﻢﻟ
 
ذإ
 
،
 
لوﻷا
 
ﻲﺋﻮﻀﻟا
 
رﺪﺼﻤﻟا
 
ﺲﻤﺸﻟا
 
ﺮﺒﺘﻌﺗو
 
لدﺎﻌﯾ
 
ﺎﻣ
 
ﻖﻠﻄﺗ
 
ﻲﮭﻓ
 
،
 
ًﺎﻋﺎﻌﺷإ
14%
 ﺼﻤﻟا
 
ﻖﻠﻄُﯾ
 
ﻦﯿﺣ
 
ﻲﻓ
 
،
 
عﺎﻌﺷإ
 
ﻞﻜﺷ
 
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
ﺎﮭﺘﻗﺎط
 
ﻦﻣ
 
 ﻂﻘﻓﻲﺋﺎﺑﺮﮭﻜﻟا
 
حﺎﺒ
2%
ﻦﻣ
 
ذإ
 
،
 
ﺎﻤﮭﺘﻌﺷﻷ
 
 ﺔﯿﺟﻮﻤﻟا
 
لاﻮطﻷا
 
ﻦﻣ
 
ﻦﯿﻋﺎﻌﺷﻹا
 
ىﻮﺘﺤﻣ
 
فﻼﺘﺧﻻ
 
ً ﺔﻓﺎﺿإ
 
،
 
ةراﺮﺣ
 
ﻲﻗﺎﺒﻟاو
 
ءﻮﺿ
 
ﻞﻜﺷ
 
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
 ﮫﺘﻗﺎط
 
ﻞﻜﺸﻟا
 
ﺎﻨﻟ
 
ﻦﯿﺒﯾو
 
،
 
 ﺔﯿﺋﺎﺑﺮﮭﻜﻟا
 
ﺢﯿﺑﺎﺼﻤﻟا
 
ءﻮﺿ
 
ﻲﻓ
 
ﺎﮭﻨﻋ
 
ﺲﻤﺸﻟا
 
ءﻮﺿ
 
ﻲﻓ
 
ﻲﺠﺴﻔﻨﺒﻟا
 
قﻮﻓ
 
عﺎﻌﺷﻹا
 
 ﺔﺒﺴﻧ
 
ﺪﯾﺰﺗ
3
ًﻼﯿﻠﺤﺗ ﻧو
 
،
 
 ﺔﯿﺋﻮﻀﻟا
 
فﻮﯿﻄﻟاو
 
 ﺔﻌﺷﻷا
 
عاﻮﻧﻷﻞﻜﺸﻟا
 
ﻲﻓ
 
ىﺮ
4
 ﮫﻠﯿﻠﺤﺗو
 
ﻲﺋﺮﻤﻟا
 
لﺎﺠﻤﻟا
 
ﻊﻗﻮﻣ
:
 
ﻞﻜﺸﻟا
3:
 ﺔﯿﺋﻮﻀﻟا
 
 ﺔﻌﺷﻷا
 
عاﻮﻧأ
 
ﻞﻜﺸﻟا
4:
 ﺔﻌﺷﻷا
 
عاﻮﻧأ
 
ﻦﯿﺑ
 
 ﮫﻠﯿﻠﺤﺗو
 
ﻲﺋﺮﻤﻟا
 
لﺎﺠﻤﻟا
 
ﻊﻗﻮﻣ
2-
ﺔﻠﻣﺎﻜﺘﻤﻟا
 
ناﻮﻟﻷا
:
راﺪﻣ
 
ﻦﻣ
 
ﺰﻔﻘﻟاو
 
ﻦﯿﻨﻄﻟا
 
وأ
 
كﺮﺤﺘﻟا
 
ﺎﮭﻨﻜﻤﯾ
 
ةﺮﺣ
 
تﺎﻧوﺮﺘﻜﻟا
 
نﻮﻠﻤﻟا
 
ﺐﻛﺮﻤﻟا
 
ءيﺰﺟ
 
يﻮﺤﯾ ﻋ
 
 ﻂﺑﺮﻟا
 
ﺪﺿ
 
ﺮﺧآ
 
ﻰﻟإ
 
 ﻂﺑار ﺔﻗﺎﻄﻠﻟ
 
ﺎﮭﺻﺎﺼﺘﻣﺎﺑ
 
ﻰﻠﻋأ
 
ﻰﻟإ
 
ﻲﻗﺎط
 
ىﻮﺘﺴﻣ
 
ﻦﻣ
 
ﻞﻘﺘﻨﺘﻓ
 
،
 
ءيﺰﺠﻟا
 
 ﺔﺣﺎﺴﻣ
 
ﻞﻣﺎﻛ
 
ﻰﻠ
 
 ﮫﺘﺼﺘﻣا
 
ﺎﻣ
 
ً ﺔﻘﻠﻄﻣ
 
ﻲﻠﺻﻷا
 
ﺎھاﻮﺘﺴﻣ
 
ﻰﻟإ
 
دﻮﻌﺗ
 
نأ
 
ﺚﺒﻠﺗ
 
ﻻو
 
،
 
ءيﺰﺠﻟا
 
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
 ﺔﻄﻗﺎﺴﻟا
 
 ﺔﯿﺋﻮﻀﻟا
 
تﺎﺟﻮﻤﻟا
 
ﺮﺒﻋ
 
ةدراﻮﻟاﻮط
 
ﻲﻤﺴﻧو
 
،
 
نﻮﻟ
 
ﻞﻜﺷ
 
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
ﺎﮭﺴﺴﺤﺘﺘﻟ
 
ﻦﯿﻌﻟا
 
 ﺔﯿﻜﺒﺸﻟ
 
 ﺔﺴﻜﻌﻨﻤﻟا
 
 ﺔﻌﺷﻷا
 
ﻞﺼﺗو
 
،
 
ﺪﯾﺪﺟ
 
ﻦﻣ
 
ٍ ﺔﻗﺎط
 
ﻦﻣ ﺔﻗﺎﻄﻟا
 
ل
 
لوﺪﺠﻟا
 
ﻲﻓ
 
ﺎﻤﻛ
 
ﻞﻤﻜﻤﻟا
 
نﻮﻠﻟﺎﺑ
 
 ﺔﺴﻜﻌﻨﻤﻟاو
 
نﻮﻠﻟﺎﺑ
 
 ﺔﺼﺘﻤﻤﻟا
1:
 
لوﺪﺠﻟا
1
 
 
This PDF is Created by Simpo Word to PDF unregistered version - http://www.simpopdf.com
3
3-
ﺔﯿﻧﻮﻠﻟا
 
صاﻮﺨﻟا
:
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
 ﻂﻗﺎﺴﻟاو
 
ﻢﺴﺠﻟا
 
ءﺎﻀﻋأ
 
ﻒﺋﺎظﻮﺑ
 
صﺎﺨﻟا
 
ﻲﺟﻮﻟﻮﯿﺴﻔﻟا
 
ﺮﯿﺛﺄﺘﻟا
 
ﻚﻟذ
 
 ﮫﻧأ
 
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
نﻮﻠﻟا
 
فﺮﻌُﯾود
 
سﺎﺴﺣإ
 
ﻮﮭﻓ
 
ﻲﻟﺎﺘﻟﺎﺑو
 
،
 
نﻮﻠﻤﻟا
 
ءﻮﻀﻟا
 
ﻦﻣ
 
وأ
 
نﻮﻠﻤﻟا
 
ﻲﻏﺎﺒﺼﻟا
 
ءيﺰﺠﻟا
 
ﻦﻣ
 
ﻦﯿﻌﻟا
 
 ﺔﯿﻜﺒﺷﻲﻟﺎﺘﻟﺎﺑو
 
يدﺎﻣ
 
دﻮﺟو
 
ن
 
وأ
 
ﻲﺋﺮﻤﻟا
 
 ﮫﻔﯿﺻﻮﺗ
 
ﺮﺒﻋ
 
نﻮﻠﻟا
 
ﺎﮭﺑ
 
ﻒﺼﺘﯾ
 
ﻲﺘﻟا
 
صاﻮﺨﻟا
 
ﻢھأو
 
،
 
 ﺔﯿﺤﻟا
 
تﺎﻨﺋﺎﻜﻠﻟ
 
ﻲﺒﺼﻌﻟا
 
زﺎﮭﺠﻟا
 
جرﺎﺧ
 
دﻮﺟو
 
 ﮫﻟ
 
ﺲﯿﻟﻲﺋﺎﯾﺰﯿﻔﻟا
.3-1-
ﻲﻧﻮﻠﻟا
 
جرﺪﺘﻟا
 Hue
:
ﻲﻟﺎﻘﺗﺮﺑ
 
وأ
 
ﺮﻤﺣأ
 
لﻮﻘﻧ
 
نﺄﻛ
 
،
 
نﻮﻠﻟا
 
 ﺔﯿﻨﻛ
 
ﺰﯿﻤﯾو
...
لﺎﻘﺘﻧا
 
ﻲﻓ
 
 ﮫﺘﯾﺰﻣﺮﻟ
 
جرﺪﺘﻟﺎﺑ
 
 ﮫﯿﻤﺴﻧوﻰﻟإ
 
 ﺔﻄﻘﻧ
 
ﻦﻣ
 
نﻮﻠﻟاﻞﻜﺸﻟا
 
ﻲﻓ
 
ﺎﻤﻛ
 
ﺞﯾرﺪﺘﻟﺎﺑ
 
ىﺮﺧأ
5:
 
ﻞﻜﺸﻟا
5:
ناﻮﻟﻷا
 
صﺮﻗ
3-2-
 ﺔﻤﯿﻘﻟا
Value
:
نﻮﻠﻟا
 
هﺮﺒﺘﻌﻧ
 
ﺎﻣ
 
ﻮھو
 
ﻊﺒﺸﻣ
 
يأ
 
،
 
ﺢﺗﺎﻓ
 
وأ
 
ﻖﻣﺎﻏ
 
ﻦﯿﺑ
 
ﺎﻣ
 
نﻮﻠﻟا
 
ﻖﻤﻋ
 
 ﺔﺟرد
 
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
ﻞﻟﺪﺗو
 
ﻲﺳﺎﺳﻷا
Shade " 
هﺮﺒﺘﻌﻧ
 
ﺎﻣ
 
وأ
 
ﺢﺗﺎﻓ
 
وأ
" Tint " .
3-3-
ةﺪﺸﻟا
" Intensity " 
:
 ﺔﺟرد
 
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
 ﺔﯿﺻﺎﺨﻟا
 
هﺬھ
 
ﻞﻟﺪﺗونﻮﻠﻟا
 
ءﺎﻘﻧ
 
 ﺔﺟرد
 
ﻦﻣ
 
ﺮﯿﻐﻧ
 
نأ
 
ﺎﻨﻨﻜﻤﯿﻓ
 
،
 
نﻮﻠﻟا
 
ءﺎﻘﻧ
 
ﻲﻓﺎﺼﻟا
 
قرزﻷا
 
نﻮﻠﻟا
 
 ﮫﺟﻮﯾ
 
يﺬﻟا
 
ﻲﻟﺎﻘﺗﺮﺒﻟا
 
نﻮﻠﻟﺎﺑ
 
قرزﻷا
 
نﻮﻠﻟا
 
جﺰﻤﻧ
 
نﺄﻛ
 
،
 
داﻮﺴﻟا
 
ﻦﻣ
 
 ﮫﺑﺮﻘﯾ
 
ﺮﺧآ
 
ٍنﻮﻠﺑ
 
 ﮫﺟﺰﻤﺑ
 
ﻞﻜﺸﻟا
 
ﻲﻓ
 
ﺎﻤﻛ
 
يدﺎﻣﺮﻟا
 
نﻮﻠﻟا
 
تﺎﺟرد
 
ﻦﻣ
 
 ﺔﺟرد
 
وأ
 
دﻮﺳﻷا
 
ﻰﻟإ
 
ﻢﺛ
 
ﻦﻣو
 
ﻢﺗﺎﻌﻟا
 
ﻲﻠﺤﻜﻟا
 
نﻮﻠﻟا
 
ﻰﻟإ
6:
 
ﻞﻜﺸﻟا
6:
 ﻨﺑنﻮﻠﻟا
 
ةﺮﻛ
 
ءﺎ
 
وأ
 
ﻲﻧﻮﻠﻟا
 
عﺎﺒﺷﻹا
 
 ﺔﺟرﺪﺑ
 
 ﺔﺻﺎﺨﻟا
 
هﺬھ
 
ﻮﻋﺪﯾ
 
ﻦﻣ
 
ﻢﮭﻨﻣو
Chroma
ﻰﻟإ
 
ﻲﻧﺎﻘﻟا
 
ﺮﻤﺣﻷا
 
ﻦﻣ
 
نﻮﻠﻟا
 
لﺎﻘﺘﻧا
 
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
ﻦﯿﻠﻟﺪﻣ
 
ًﻼﺜﻣ
 
يﺮﻤﺨﻟا
.3-4-
ﻲﺟﻮﻤﻟا
 
لﻮﻄﻟا
Wave Length
:
ﺐﺒﺴﯾ
 
يﺬﻟا
 
رﻮﺷﻮﻤﻟا
 
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
ﻲﺋﺮﻤﻟا
 
ﻒﯿﻄﻟا
 
ﻞﯿﻠﺤﺗ
 
ﺪﻨﻋ
 
ناﻮﻟﻷا
 
عزﻮﺘﺗﺮﺻﺎﻨﻋ
 
ﻰﻟإ
 
ﺎﻧﺮﻛذو
 
ﻖﺒﺳ
 
ﺎﻤﻛ
 
ءﻮﻀﻟا
 
رﺎﺴﻜﻧا ﺔﻘﯿﺿ
 
 ﺔﻣﺰﺤﺑ
 
وأ
 
دﺪﺤﻣ
 
 ﺔﺟﻮﻣ
 
لﻮﻄﺑ
 
ﺎﮭﻨﻣ
 
ٍﻞﻛ
 
ﺰﯿﻤﺘﻤﻟا
 
 ﺔﯿﺳﺎﺳﻷا
 
ﺎھ
 
وأ
 
 ﺔﺟﻮﻤﻟا
 
لﻮط
 
ﺪﯿﺣو
 
نﻮﻟ
 
ﺎﮭﻧأ
 
ﺎﮭﻨﻋ
 
لﺎﻘﯾو
 
ﻲﻓﺎﺼﻟا
 
نﻮﻠﻟا
 
ﺎﻨﯿﻄﻌﺗ
Monochromatic
ﻞﻜﺸﻟا
 
ﻲﻓ
 
ىﺮﻧ
 
ﺎﻤﻛ
7:

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