Acute glomerulonephritis (AGN) is active inflammation in the glomeruli. Eachkidney is composed of about 1 million microscopic filtering "screens" known asglomeruli that selectively remove uremic waste products. The inflammatoryprocess usually begins with an infection or injury (e.g., burn, trauma), then theprotective immune system fights off the infection, scar tissue forms, and theprocess is complete.There are many diseases that cause an active inflammation within the glomeruli.Some of these diseases are systemic (i.e., other parts of the body are involved atthe same time) and some occur solely in the glomeruli. When there is activeinflammation within the kidney, scar tissue may replace normal, functional kidneytissue and cause irreversible renal impairment.The severity and extent of glomerular damage²focal (confined) or diffuse(widespread)²determines how the disease is manifested. Glomerular damagecan appear as subacute renal failure, progressive chronic renal failure (CRF); or simply a urinary abnormality such as hematuria (blood in the urine) or proteinuria(excess protein in the urine).