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3.5 - Transcription and Translation

3.5 - Transcription and Translation

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Published by IB Screwed
Notes on DNA transcription and translation.
Including the structure of RNA and DNA, formation of an RNA strand complementary to the DNA strand by RNA polymerase, process of translation and the relationship between one gene and one polypeptide.
Notes on DNA transcription and translation.
Including the structure of RNA and DNA, formation of an RNA strand complementary to the DNA strand by RNA polymerase, process of translation and the relationship between one gene and one polypeptide.

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Published by: IB Screwed on Jul 13, 2010
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08/15/2014

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3.5
 –
 Transcription and Translation
3.5.1 - Compare the structure of RNA and DNA
 
 
DNA
Stands for Deoxyribonucleic AcidSugar: deoxyriboseVery longBases: G C T ADouble strands wound in a helix and held together by hydrogen bonds
RNA
Stands for Ribonucleic AcidSugar: riboseRelatively shortBases: G C U ASingle strand that can form mRNA, tRNA or rRNA
 
3.5.2 - Outline DNA transcription in terms of the formation of an RNA strand complementary to the DNA strand by RNA polymerase
A complimentary copy of the DNA is made in the nucleus to form the
mRNA
. This process is catalysed by the enzyme
RNA polymerase
. To copy the mRNA, the DNA double helix is unwound by DNA helicase, with the hydrogen bonds breaking between the base pairs to be copied. The DNA opens at the transcription site, or position of the gene that needs to be copied. The coding strand, or the
sense strand
, is the template for the mRNA. However, the mRNA is actually built against the
anti-sense strand
. It has the same pattern as the opposite strand due to complimentary base pairing. The free nucleotides pair with the DNA nucleotides. The only difference is that
uracil
replaces thymine, bonding to adenine. The RNA polymerase forms the phosphodiester bonds to make the backbone of the mRNA molecule. The mRNA then detaches and leaves the nucleus via the nuclear pores in the membrane. It enters the cytoplasm for reading at the ribosomes. The DNA double helix reforms.
3.5.3 - Describe the genetic code in terms of codons composed of triplets of bases
Each sequence of three bases codes for one amino acid, called a triplet code. These groups of three are called
codons
.
 
For every amino acid, it has two or three triplets which code for them. Other triplets act as
the ‘
start
’ or ‘
stop
codons
, which define where to begin and end the polypeptide sequence.
There are also multiple triplets which code for these ‘punctuation’ codons.
 
3.5.4 - Explain the process of translation, leading to polypeptide formation
The amino acids are activated by combining with
tRNA
 (transfer RNA) in the cytoplasm. tRNA molecules are in the shape of a clover leaf. Each molecule binds to a specific amino acid
codon
, the other end binding to the amino acid. The other end has an
anticodon
, which is the complimentary codon for the mRNA. The tRNA binds to the amino acid, catalysed by an enzyme. This process uses ATP. Once the mRNA molecule has been transcribed, it is sent to the ribosome in the cytoplasm or endoplasmic reticulum for
translation
. The protein is formed from the polypeptides,

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