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3.5 - Transcription and Translation

3.5 - Transcription and Translation

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Published by: IBscrewed4ib on Jul 13, 2010
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03/31/2014

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 http://ibscrewed4biology.blogspot.com/ 
3.5
 –
Transcription and Translation
3.5.1 - Compare the structure of RNA and DNA
 
 
DNA
Stands forDeoxyribonucleicAcidSugar: deoxyriboseVery longBases: G C T ADouble strandswound in a helix andheld together byhydrogen bonds
RNA
Stands forRibonucleic AcidSugar: riboseRelatively shortBases: G C U ASingle strand thatcan form mRNA,tRNA or rRNA
 
 http://ibscrewed4biology.blogspot.com/ 
3.5.2 - Outline DNA transcription in terms of the formation of an RNA strandcomplementary to the DNA strand by RNA polymerase
A complimentary copy of the DNA is made in the nucleus to form the
mRNA
. This process iscatalysed by the enzyme
RNA polymerase
. To copy the mRNA, the DNA double helix isunwound by DNA helicase, with the hydrogen bonds breaking between the base pairs to becopied. The DNA opens at the transcription site, or position of the gene that needs to becopied.The coding strand, or the
sense strand
, is the template for the mRNA. However, the mRNAis actually built against the
anti-sense strand
. It has the same pattern as the opposite stranddue to complimentary base pairing.The free nucleotides pair with the DNA nucleotides. The only difference is that
uracil
replaces thymine, bonding to adenine. The RNA polymerase forms the phosphodiesterbonds to make the backbone of the mRNA molecule. The mRNA then detaches and leavesthe nucleus via the nuclear pores in the membrane. It enters the cytoplasm for reading atthe ribosomes. The DNA double helix reforms.
3.5.3 - Describe the genetic code in terms of codons composed of triplets of bases
Each sequence of three bases codes for one amino acid, called a triplet code. These groupsof three are called
codons
.
 
 http://ibscrewed4biology.blogspot.com/ 
For every amino acid, it has two or three triplets which code for them. Other triplets act as
the ‘
start
’ or ‘
stop
codons
, which define where to begin and end the polypeptide sequence.
There are also multiple triplets which code for these ‘punctuation’ codons.
 
3.5.4 - Explain the process of translation, leading to polypeptide formation
The amino acids are activated by combining with
tRNA
(transfer RNA) in the cytoplasm.tRNA molecules are in the shape of a clover leaf. Each molecule binds to a specific aminoacid
codon
, the other end binding to the amino acid. The other end has an
anticodon
, whichis the complimentary codon for the mRNA. The tRNA binds to the amino acid, catalysed byan enzyme. This process uses ATP.Once the mRNA molecule has been transcribed, it is sent to the ribosome in the cytoplasmor endoplasmic reticulum for
translation
. The protein is formed from the polypeptides,

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