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Nota Pengertian Peradaban Barat

Nota Pengertian Peradaban Barat

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Published by Kamaruzaman Yusoff

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Published by: Kamaruzaman Yusoff on Jul 13, 2010
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12/12/2012

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Beberapa pengertian Peradaban/tamadun dari pelbagai perspektif 1- civilization, civilisation -(a society in an advanced state of social development (e.g., with complex legal and political and religious organizations); "the people slowly progressed from barbarism to civilization")-> society -- (an extended social group having a distinctive cultural and economic organization)2-civilization, civilisation -- (the social process whereby societies achieve civilization)-> social process -- (a process involved in the formation of groups of persons)=> assimilation, absorption -- (the social process of absorbing one cultural groupinto harmony with another)=> decentralization, decentalisation -- (the social process in which population and industry moves from urban centers to outlying districts)=> urbanization, urbanisation -- (the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban)3-refinement, civilization, civilisation -- (the quality of excellence in thought and manners and taste; "a man of intellectual refinement"; "he is remembered for his generosity and civilization")-> excellence -- (the quality of excelling; possessing good qualities in high degree)=> admirability, admirableness, wonderfulness -- (admirable excellence)=> impressiveness, grandness, magnificence -- (splendid or imposing in size or a ppearance; "the grandness of the architecture")=> refinement, civilization, civilisation -- (the quality of excellence in thought and manners and taste; "a man of intellectual refinement"; "he is remembered for his generosity and civilization")
Makna lain:
1. a human society that has a complex cultural, poltical, and legal organization: anadvanced state in social development. 2. the peoples or nations collectively who haveachieved such a state. 3. the total culture and way of life of a particular people, nation,region, or period 4. the process of bringing or achieving civilization. 5.inletectual,cultural, and moral refinement 6. cities or populated areas, as contrasted with sparselyinhabited areas, deserts, etc.
1.
A civilization is the tangible creations of a single community.a- A group of people become a community when they share the same morality,which in turn allows them to develop a collective intelligence, which reveals itself through a single shared language. b- The collective, or communal, intelligence of the community is superior tothe intelligence of the individual because it is more than the sum of its citizens'efforts. It's memory , thus its wisdom, is not constrained by human anatomy but is practically unlimited in scope or duration.
 
c- The character of a community is that induced by the founding morality of its understanding.d- A community reinforces itself by recording its wisdom through
Tradition
Custom
Manners
Lawse-A community exists in one of two modes; it is eithe
waxing
(gainswisdom ) when the majority are
unselfish
or 
waning
(loses wisdom )when the majority are
selfish
. The
mode
of a community is a result of the majority mode of their citizens, who themselves exist in one of twoseparate modes. A citizen is either i.
unselfish
and prepared to sacrifice private interest for the commongood.ii.
selfish
and prepared to sacrifice the common good for private interest.f-
The majority persecute the minority mode
. The majority will alwaystreat the minority as outcasts, forcing them to become isolated and alienated.In the vital mode the immoral win social stigma, in the dissolute mode themoral are viewed as simpletons.g-
A community fails
when its citizens no longer imbue the foundingmorality into their off-spring (see the law of reverse civilization). This is  because the majority of parents are either isitilah lain yg berkaitan dengan civilizationa-culture: i- the total of inherited ideas, beliefs, values, and knowledgeswhich constitute the shared bases of social action. Ii-. The toal range of activities and ideas of a people iii-a particular civilizationat a particula period. Iv- tea artistic and social pursuits, expression, and tastedd valued by asociety or class. V- the enlightenment or refinement resulting from these pursuit. Vi- th ecultivation of plants to improve stock or to produce new ones.Vii- the rearing and breeding of animal viii- the act or practice of tilling or cultivating the soil. b-modernism: i- modern tendencies, thoughts, etc., or the support of these. Ii- something typical of contemporary life or thought iii- belonging or relating to the period in history from the end of the middle ages to the present.in sociology, the transformation from a traditional, rural, agrarian society to asecular, urban, industrial society.c- western- i- of or characteristic of the americas and the parts of europe not under communist rule. Ii- as opposed to the orient.
 
d- urbanisation: the process by which large numbers of people become permanently concentrated in relatively small areas, forming cities.e-city: a relatively permanent and highly organized centre of  population, of greater size or importance than a town or village.Peradaban Barat:Sejarah yg lama, The idea of Europe as an entitity or even a quality has a rather longhistory in Europe.Christianity became the core value of "Europe".The growing rationalisation of the European states influenced the meaning of "Europe". The 16th century witnessed a growing use of the concept of Europe in aninternational political context. A state discourse replaced the religious discourse.States began to "speak" to each other on a formalised scene which was referred to as"Europe". "Europe" was less a religious value and more a system of criss-crossingrelations (military, economic ,diplomatic and even legal relations - hat were containedwithin ideas of international law). The Europe-as-a-system concept focused on staterationalism (raison d'état). But this value was accompanied by an idea of Europe as acultural value. Instead of Christianity the concept of "Europe" was combined with"civilization". This concept can be seen as a secularised parallel to Christianity. Ittook form in - what we might broadly call - an imperialist discourse used in theencounters with the New World. In their representations of the Indians (as they werenamed) the Europeans placed themselves and their continent in a superior, positionwhich was related to civilization.meanings of civilization developed in Europe from the 18th century. These are:- civilization as a cultural entity (based on religion)- civilization as a universal process and a final aim (history)- civilization as a space in time (from this follows the potential existence of severalcivilizations)- the existence of a European/Western civilizationThese qualifications for civilised people: are all attached to people ( consists of manners (moeurs), politesse (politeness or polished), civility or urbanity (urbanité)..Civilization is only the last phase in the development of 
cultures
 Civilization became the structuring principle of world history, both its driving forceand its end result - i.e., civil society

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