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PICPARSINGII

PICPARSINGII

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Published by Education Justice

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Education Justice on Jul 13, 2010
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02/11/2013

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Parsing the Achievement Gap II
Policy Information Report
®
 
1
Table of Contents
Preace ...........................................................................................................2Acknowledgments .........................................................................................2Highlights ......................................................................................................3Introduction ...................................................................................................5Rigor o the Curriculum................................................................................9Teacher Preparation ....................................................................................11Teacher Experience .....................................................................................13Teacher Absence and Turnover ...................................................................14Class Size .....................................................................................................15Technology in the Classroom ......................................................................16Fear and Saety at School ...........................................................................17Parent Participation ....................................................................................18Frequent School Changing .........................................................................20Low Birth Weight ........................................................................................22Environmental Damage ..............................................................................23Hunger and Nutrition .................................................................................25Talking and Reading to Inants and Young Children ................................26Television Watching ....................................................................................28Parent-Pupil Ratio .......................................................................................29Summer Achievement Gain/Loss ...............................................................30Summing Up ................................................................................................32
This report was written by:
Paul E. BartonRichard J. Coley
The views expressed in this reportare those o the authors and do notnecessarily reect the views o theofcers and trustees o EducationalTesting Service.Additional copies o this report canbe ordered or $15 (prepaid) rom:Policy Inormation CenterMail Stop 19-REducational Testing ServiceRosedale RoadPrinceton, NJ 08541-0001609-734-5949pic@ets.orgCopies can be downloaded rom:www.ets.org/research/picCopyright © 2009 by EducationalTesting Service. All rights reserved.ETS, the ETS logo and LISTENING.LEARNING. LEADING. are regis-tered trademarks o EducationalTesting Service (ETS). All othertrademarks are the property o theirrespective owners.April 2009Policy Evaluation andResearch CenterPolicy Inormation CenterEducational Testing ServiceCover photograph o “SplitClassroom-Achievement Gap,”Copyright © by Amanda Long.Used by permission.
 
 2
Despite a long-running national ocus on closinggaps in academic achievement among America’s stu-dents, by race/ethnicity and by socioeconomic status,they remain wide and persistent. Eorts to narrowthese gaps commenced in earnest with the Elementaryand Secondary Education Act o 1965, and have con-tinued through periodic unding increases, legislativeamendments, program expansions such as Head Start,and, most recently, the No Child Let Behind Act o 2002. At the state level, basic-skill and compensatoryeducation programs have operated or many years.The frst
Parsing the Achievement Gap
report, pub-lished in 2003, ocused on expanding our knowledgeabout why these gaps exist. It asked two questions:What does the accumulated body o research revealabout the correlation between lie experiences andlie conditions on the one hand, and cognitive devel-opment and school achievement on the other? Andknowing this, are there dierences in these critical lieexperiences and conditions among racial/ethnic andsocioeconomic subgroups that mirror the dierencesin average achievement in school? The answers wereyes and yes — that is, lie experiences and conditionsaect cognitive development and academic achieve-ment and there are dierences in these experiencesand conditions among subgroups.This ollow-up report, which brings the synthesiso the research up to date, asks and answers a thirdquestion: Have these gaps in experiences and lieconditions that mirror the achievement gap narrowed,widened, or stayed the same since the earlier reportwas published?These “correlates o achievement” span the entireperiod rom birth to the time the last standardizedachievement test is taken in school. They include whathappened during inancy, in the home beore school,in the school, ater school, and in the summer. Focus-ing on these “beyond school” actors in no way dimin-ishes the critical importance o the schools and theirquality. As Daniel Patrick Moynihan put it, “You do notlearn algebra at home.” Rather, the ocus on “beyondschool” conditions aims to round out our understand-ing o academic achievement gaps.Paul Barton and Richard Coley have tackled thetask o assembling a large and disparate body o research. They also note the importance o improvingthe research base or identiying and tracking the gaps.Our nation’s willingness to do so will say much aboutour resolve to conront and eliminate the gaps thatthreaten our society in deep and basic ways.Michael NettlesSenior Vice PresidentPolicy Evaluation and Research Center
 Preface
This report was reviewed by Margaret E. Goertz, Consortium or Policy Research in Education, University o Pennsylvania; Laura Lipmann, Child Trends; and John Ralph, National Center or Education Statistics. RichardPliskin was the editor and Martin Fedowitz provided desktop publishing. Errors o act or interpretation arethose o the authors.
 Acknowledgements

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