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Macedon and Germany

Macedon and Germany

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Published by MACENTO
"Macedon and Germany" is a scholarly article written by Edward C. Echols from the University of Alabama in 1949. In it using ancient historical facts and modern scholarly works he paints a very good comparison between the situation in ancient Macedonia after its defeat by Rome and post-WWII Germany.

"Македонија и Германија" е научен труд напишан од Евард Ц. Еколс од Универзитетот во Алабама, во 1949 год. Во него, употребувајќи историски факти од антиката и модерни научни трудови тој прави многу добра споредба помеѓу ситуацијата во која се најде древна Македонија по поразот од Рим со онаа во Германија после Втората Светска Војна.
"Macedon and Germany" is a scholarly article written by Edward C. Echols from the University of Alabama in 1949. In it using ancient historical facts and modern scholarly works he paints a very good comparison between the situation in ancient Macedonia after its defeat by Rome and post-WWII Germany.

"Македонија и Германија" е научен труд напишан од Евард Ц. Еколс од Универзитетот во Алабама, во 1949 год. Во него, употребувајќи историски факти од антиката и модерни научни трудови тој прави многу добра споредба помеѓу ситуацијата во која се најде древна Македонија по поразот од Рим со онаа во Германија после Втората Светска Војна.

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74THE CLASSICAL WEEKLYhence may express the writers'belief that the landsrebelled againsttheirrightfulmasters;evenso,theprecedent for a loose use ofrebellatrixmaybeset orfollowed by such passages.MediaevalEvidence: The liberaltendencywhichwehave traced throughthe fifth century seems recognizedbyaglossographerofthe seventh:
7roXe,wos
hoc bellumhoc proelitumhoc rebellum (rebellium20?Goetz
.21
Against such a background the broad meaning ofrebellis in the later Middle Ages need not be consideredas merely symptomatic ofthe general breakdown oflinguistic distinctions, but as a final step in the liberalevolution of the re-bell- compounds:
Rebellis, Hostis. LitteraeJohannis Franc. Regis ann. 1352apudD.Secousse tom. 4.Ordinat.Reg. pag.116:...antecessoresnostriFrancorumReges. ..inquoscumqueRebellessuosmanusvoluerunt mittere,victoriamreportarunt. Gaspar BarthiusinGlossarioexBaldrici [saec.XII]Hist. Palaest.: Rebellis, pugnax,
belliger.22
But the other entries ofthe Corpus glossariorum andof DuCange emphasizethe 'again' meaning of there-bell- compounds.23Conservativeand liberal tendencies seeminbalanceto the end. Overagainstthe original and predominant'again' meaning,the 'back'meaninghasgained groundthrough thecenturies. Re-bell- has come to be oftensynonymouswithre-pugn-and re-sist-.
PAUL
R.
MURPHYOHIO UNIVERSITY
MACEDONANDGERMANYIn considering the question"Does history repeat
itself?", Toynbee observesthat ". . . historicalevents that
repeatthemselves may be strictlycontemporary or theymay overlapintimeor theymaybeentirely non-con-
temporaneous withone another."'On a
"...
true time
scale," Toynbeecontinues,"theseeventsof 'ancienthis-tory' are virtuallycontemporary with our ownlifetime,however remote they may appear when viewed throughthe magnifying lens of the individual human midget's sub-
jective mental vision.
. .
. The conclusion seems to be
that human history does turn out, on occasions, to haverepeated itself up to date in a significant sense.
..."2
Among the more striking modern repetitions ofhistory"upto date in a significant sense" must certainly be in-cluded the Allied handling of Germanyafter World WarII and the Roman political experiment in Macedoniaafterthe defeat ofPerseusin the Third MacedonianWar.The forcible removalofPerseusand ofHitlerfrom "absolute" positions in their respective states re-sulted in a seriesofamazingly parallel developments.These I shall illustrate under six headings, relyinglargely upon quotations from ancient sources, from theworks ofmodernscholars, and from the daily press.I.
LosSESIN MANPOWERANDRESOURCES.
Both coun-
tries suffered heavylosses inthewar:". . . it is clear
that the lossesin thewar wereenoughto affectseriouslythe manpower of a country as smallas Macedonia."3According to the New York Times MagazineofAug-ust 7, 1949, p. 9, "Women's numerical superioritymake[s] them a major factor in today's Germany."
Macedonia's ".
.
. defeat was followed bytheloss of
alarge partofthemovabie wealth...."4"Amphipoliswitnessed ...a grandshow ofallthe worksof artandother valuablesofwhichthe citiesofMacedonhadbeenstript.Ofthedestinationoftheseoutward andvisiblesigns of a growingcivilization therewas nodoubt:theships to bearthemaway toRomelay readyintheStrymon."5 Germany too has witnessedthe removalofmuchofhertangibleresources.TheplatformsofallWest German political parties involvedin theAugust,1949 electioncontaina plankdevoted tounequivocalopposition tothe furtherdismantling ofGermanndustry.Effortsweremade toestablisha NationalAnti-Dis-mantling Committeeto cope with the problem. Ironically,GreatBritainwasscheduledto beginthedismantlingofasynthetic gasoline plantinGelenkirchen on thedayafterthe national election was held.Itmay be noted also that the practice of "liberating"personal effects, so popular during World War II andafter(cf. the Nezw York Herald Tribune, September27, 1949, p. 10), was not unknown in ancient times.
Plutarch(Aentilius
Pauhis
28.6, Loeb translation):
"It was only the books of the king that he [Paulus]allowedhissons,whoweredevotedtolearning,tochoose
outfor
themselves...
20
Ihave notdiscussedrebellium, acollateral formofrebellio.In itsapparentlysingle appearanceinClassical Latinliterature(Liv.xlii. 21.3)it isan editorialconjecturefor therebellinumofthesingleMS,and isnotevengenerally preferred to thealternativeconjecturerebellandum.
21
CorpusGlossariorumLatisnorunt,ed.byG.LoeweandG.Goetz(Leipzig,1888-1923), II,411, ?57 (fromtheCodexHar-leianius, saec.VII;cf.ibid.,p. xx).
22
Charles duFresne,Sieur DuCange,GlossariumMediaeetInfimaeLatisnitatis(1678);new edit.,ed.LeopoldFavre(Paris,1937-1938),s.v.
23
Such isalso thecase in theMedievalLatinWord-ListfromBritish andIrishSources, ed.by J.H. Baxterand C.Johnson(Oxford,1934).
1
A. J. Toynbee,Civilization on Trial (NewYork: Oxford Uni-versity Press,1948), p.36.
2
Ibid.,p.37.3J. A.0.Larsen,"RomanGreece,"inTenneyFrank, ed.,An EconomicSurvey of AncientRome(Baltimore: TheJohnsHopkinsPress, 1938),IV,294.Translations fromLivy xlvfollow the version in Larsen'stext.
4
Ibid.
5
W.E.Heitland,TheRomanRepublic(Cambridge: AttheUniversity Press,1909), II,121.
 
THE CLASSICALWEEKLY75II. LIBERATIONF INHABITANTS.Livy(xlv.18):"First, itwasdeterminedthat theMacedonians...should be free,in order to demonstrate to allthe worldthat the arms of the Roman peopledid not bring slaveryto the freebut freedomtoslaves...."Again,from the
proclamation ofPaulus(Livyxlv. 29): ". . . he ordered
that theMacedoniansshouldlivefree, possessingthesame citiesand lands as before, governed by their ownlaws, andcreatingannualmagistrates...."Accordingto the occupationstatutefor WesternGer-
many, adoptedinApril,1949,".
.
. the Germanpeople
shallenjoyself-governmentto the maximumpossibleconsistent with [the] occupation."TheNew YorkTimes,citingthisprovision,points out alsothat"The new Ger-man nation is to have'fulllegislative,executiveandjudicial powers'-subjecttocertainlimitations."(NewYork Times, August 14,1949,Section4, p. 1.)III.
DIvIsIONINTOZONES.
Livy (xlv. 29) :[Paulusordered]thatMacedon shouldbedivided intofourdis-
tricts....
Hethenappointedthecapitalsof thedis-
tricts....
In these he orderedthatthecouncils of the
severaldistrictsshouldbeassembled,thepublicmoneydeposited,andthemagistrateselected."Germany in1949 consistsoffour"zonesofoccupa-tion." Inactual practice,there areonlytwo"zones":West Germany, comprisingthe American, British, andFrenchzones; and East Germany, the Russianzone.
IV.
ECONOMICRESTRICTIONS.
InMacedonia,theeconomicdevelopment ofthe futurewasimpeded byhamperingrestrictions imposed in the settlementof167."6 Livy(xlv. 29): "[Paulus] then gavenotice thatit was determined that thereshould not be intermarriagenorliberty to purchase landsor houses out of thelimitsoftheir respective districts;that the mines of gold andsilver must not beworked,but that those of iron and
copper
might....
He likewiseforbade the use of im-portedsalt..Heprohibitedthem from cutting ship
timber themselvesor suffering others to cutit." A
modernscholar remarks,"The instructions of the Senate
tothe commissionersimply that the minesand royalestates had become the propertyof the Roman state."7According to the April occupationstatute mentioned
above,the Western occupying powers reservedto them-selvespowerinsuch fieldsas reparations, civil aviation,
andforeigntrade."Macedoniaproper was dividedinto four independentrepublics according to the national geographicallines soclearly marked out by thehigh mountain ranges andrivers ofthe country."8 No special effort wasmade toprovide each section withadequate industries, farms,seaports, etc.,and thusmake itself-sufficient. Inaddi-tion, commerciumtmongthe severalrepublicswasfor-bidden. Faced withdecliningrevenueaftertheclosingofthegold andsilvermines,andcrippledbyrestrictionsontrade,Macedonsoonfoundhereconomicsituationunbearable.Sincethe zonesof the Westernpowersareoperatingmore orlesscooperatively, theactualdividinglinemustbedrawnonlybetween WestandEastGermany.Cur-rencydifficulties havevirtually eliminated
commerciuns
between EastandWestGermanyonanylargescale.Before thewar,WestGermany accountedfor86percentofGermany's totalproductionofsteel,80percentof itscoal,61percentofits industrialproducts,butcnly45percentofitsfarmproducts.Thelossofthefarmmarketforindustrialproductsandthenecessityofimportingfoodstuffshavecontributed to West Ger-many'seconomic difficulties.Unemployment sgenerallyconsideredanaccurateindicationof thefinancialstate ofanation;"Althoughtheleadersof thebig political
parties havehanmmeredawayatnational...questions
sincethecampaignbegan, hereinSchiersteinunemploy-ment ismoreimportant thananinternationalauthorityforthe
Ruhr...."9V.
REMOVAL OFGOVERNMENTALOFFICIALS.
"The
friendsandcourtiers ofPerseus,thegeneralsof thearmies, thecommandersof thefleets andgarrisons, allwhoheld anyemployment fromhim, weretoaccompanytheconsulintoItaly,togetherwiththeirchildren....`10"Itwas a cruelmockerywhen thepeople ofthefourdistrictswere calleduponto electan administrativecouncil for eachone of them.Noticewasgiventhat allthosenamedin apublishedblack-listwere toleave thecountry andreportthemselves toItalyuponpain ofdeath;ameasurewhich atonestrokeremovedeveryoneconversant withaffairs ofgovernment,andleft thepeople withouttheirnaturalleaders.""lTheremoval ofthe topNazisbyexecutionand im-prisonment, theelaborateprogram ofdenazificationun-dertakenby theAllies,thedifficultiesencountered insecuringcompetentofficialsforgovernmentalpostswhowere freeof anytaintofNazism,all aretoofamiliar towarrantrecounting indetailhere.It isinteresting thattheRomanprogram of"demacedonification"entbeyondtheboundariesofMacedon:"Thearrangementsin
Greeceincluded .
..
thepunishmentofthose whosided
withPerseusand ofotherswho,rightly orwrongly,weresuspectedofpro-Macedoniantendencies."12
6
Larseni,loc.cit.(note 3,above).7Larsen,op. cit.(note3,above), p.299.8TenneyFrank,RomanImperialism(NewYork:Macmillan,1914), p.208.9DrewMiddleton,"AsSchiersteinGoes tothePolls," NewYorkTimesMagazine,August14,1949,p.40.10V.Duruy,TheHistoryofRome,trans.M.M.RipleyandW.J.Clarke,ed.J.P.Mahaffy(E3oston:JewettPublishingCom.pany,1883),II,178.11Heitland,loc.cit.(note 5,above).
12
Larsen,op.cit.(note 3,above),p.300.
 
76THECLASSICALWEEKLY
VI.
RESURGENCEOFNATIONALISM.
Butperhapsthe
mostsignificantparallelbetweenthetwoconqueredstatesis theproblemofnationalism.Rometookelabo-rate precautionstopreventsuch adevelopmentnMace-donia.Livy(xlv.18):"Finallylest if thereshouldbe ageneralcouncilof thenation,some baseflattererof thepopulacemightsome timeor otherconvertintopestilentlicentiousnessthelibertygrantedwithwholesomemoderation,itwas decidedthatMacedoniashouldbe divided intofourdistricts...."Modernscholars have notedtheanti-nationalisticcharacterof
the Romanprogram:"...thecountrywascunningly
divided into fourrepublics,and in suchawaythattribesnaturallyconnectedtogetherwereseveredfromoneanother,andwereannexed toadifferentrepublicwithwhichtheyhadnonationalconnection.Theobjectofthismeasurewas todestroyallnationalfeelingineachofthe fourstates."13"Probablytherehadexistedagroupofwealthymenholdingestatesinvariouspartsof Macedonia.Suchagroupwouldtendtodevelopafeeling ofsolidarityextending tothe entirecountryand sonullifyitsdivision andkeepaliveafeeling forunity.Whatevertherewas ofsuch aclass
at thetime wasexiled.
..
andthegrowthofagroup
ofthekindinthefuture wasimpededbythe[economic]restrictionsmentioned."'14"Inorder tobreakupthenationalfeeling thatmightreadilyemerge intoperilousaction ifapretendertothe throneshouldappear,con-nubiumandcommerciumweredeclaredvoidbetweenthefourvariousstates."'15"Incuttingup akingdom, she[Rome]wason thisoccasioncuttingup anation; theprocesswaspainful,
andled totroublesomeconsequences. .. .Itwasno
lightthing toviolateanationalunitythathadover-
comelocalandtribaldiversities.
. .
.Thatthepeople
werepleasedwith'freedom,'thatis,with theabolitionofthemonarchy,wasplainlynothingbut aRoman
fiction."'16"Themonarchywasabolished,andin its
placeAemiliusandtencommissionersset upafederalcouncilofrepresentativesdrawnfrom allfourstates... .Butthisingeniousconstitutionalexperimentbroughtnocontentment;for theMacedoniansweremuch at-tachedtotheirkingsandaltogetherunripeforself-government.
.."17
Finally:"Thepeople[Macedonians]had nevertakenkindlyto thesystemof thefourre-publics,withtheirofficialsandassembliesandmachineryofmoreorlesspopulargovernment.They werearusticpopulation,used toobedience inmilitaryservice....In164theirdiscontent andunrestwerealreadyknown atRome.
"..18
Macedonia's fourrepublicsmanagedto surviveforanuneasyeighteenyears.Polybius(xxxi.12,xxxv.4)speaksof civilstrife,even(xxxi.17)ofthe murderofthe senatorsof onerepublic.Finally,in149,thelong-awaitedpretenderto the throneappearedin theperson
ofAndriscus,"pseudo-Philip,""...whohad rallieda
royalistparty onthepretenceofbeinga sonof Per-seus,sothat hesucceeded forthe moment inreunitingMacedoniaunderastolencrown."19In148,afterafourthMacedonianwar, Romefinallyresigned herselfto theannexationofMacedonia,andpeacewasestab-lished.Theobviousimplicationisthat,inspite ofRome'sdeliberateefforts,nationalisminMacedoniawasnevereradicated.Inasimilarmanner,theriseofnationalisminGermanyin1949isoccasioningnolittleconcernamongpoliticalobservers.ThomasMann, inaninter-viewuponhisarrivalin theUnitedStatesafteratourofGermany inthe summerof1949,reported:"Ididnotspeakto onehonest Germanwhowas notdeeplyconcerned aboutincreasingnationalisminhiscountry.
...
Thegreatmajorityofthepeoplecomplain,'UnderHitler weweremuchbetter
off.'
"20
Sotherethematterstands, atleast forthepresent.TheresultsoftheAugust,1949electionindicatethatKonradAdenauer,leader oftheChristianDemocrats,isthefirstChancellor ofthenewGermanRepublic.BeyondGermany'sownill-fatedWeimarRepublic,AdenauermaywelllooktoRome'sMacedonianrepub-lics.Andriscus, the"successor"toPerseus;Hitler,the"successor"toWilhelm-ifhistorycontinuestorepeatitself, itmight be welltoleaveablankspacefortheseeminglyinevitable"successor"toHitler.
EDWARD
C.
ECHOLS
UNIVERSITYOFALABAMA
REVIEWS
TheHistoricalWorkofAmmianusMarcellinus.ByE.A.
THOMPSON.
Cambridge:AttheUniversityPress;NewYork:Macmillan,1947.TPp.xii,145.$2.50.ThisstudyhasbeenfavorablyreviewedinthiscountrybyM.L.W.Laistner(CP,XLIII[1948],pp.205-7),anditwouldbe anabsurdanticlimaxforthepresentreportertoaddmuchinthewayofcommendation.SoconciseandsocloselyreasonedareMr.Thompson's
13
B.G.Niebuhr,TheHistoryofRome,trans.L.Schmitz(Philadelphia:LeaandBlanchard,1844),IV, 139.
14
Larsen,op.cit.(note3,above),p.299;cf.alsoLivyxlv.32.15Frank,loc. cit.(note8,above).
16
Heitland,loc.cit.(note5,above).
17
CyrilE.Robinson,AHistoryofRome(NewYork:ThomasCrowellCompany[1935]),p.90.
i8
Heitland,op.cit.(note5,above),II,150,f.
19
M.Cary,AHistoryofRome(London:Macmillan,1938),
p.208.
20N.Y.Times,August13,1949,p.3;italicsaremine.Cf.ThomasMann,"GermanyToday," NewYorkTimesMagasine,September25,1949,p.14.

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