THE CLASSICALWEEKLY75II. LIBERATIONF INHABITANTS.Livy(xlv.18):"First, itwasdeterminedthat theMacedonians...should be free,in order to demonstrate to allthe worldthat the arms of the Roman peopledid not bring slaveryto the freebut freedomtoslaves...."Again,from the
proclamation ofPaulus(Livyxlv. 29): ". . . he ordered
that theMacedoniansshouldlivefree, possessingthesame citiesand lands as before, governed by their ownlaws, andcreatingannualmagistrates...."Accordingto the occupationstatutefor WesternGer-
. the Germanpeople
shallenjoyself-governmentto the maximumpossibleconsistent with [the] occupation."TheNew YorkTimes,citingthisprovision,points
out alsothat"The new Ger-man nation is to have'fulllegislative,executiveandjudicial powers'-subjecttocertainlimitations."(NewYork Times, August 14,1949,Section4, p. 1.)III.
Livy (xlv. 29) :[Paulusordered]thatMacedon shouldbedivided intofourdis-
In these he orderedthatthecouncils of the
severaldistrictsshouldbeassembled,thepublicmoneydeposited,andthemagistrateselected."Germany in1949 consistsoffour"zonesofoccupa-tion." Inactual practice,there areonlytwo"zones":West Germany, comprisingthe American, British, andFrenchzones; and East Germany, the Russianzone.
InMacedonia,theeconomicdevelopment ofthe futurewasimpeded byhamperingrestrictions imposed in the settlementof167."6 Livy(xlv. 29): "[Paulus] then gavenotice thatit was determined that thereshould not be intermarriagenorliberty to purchase landsor houses out of thelimitsoftheir respective districts;that the mines of gold andsilver must not beworked,but that those of iron and
He likewiseforbade the use of im-portedsalt..Heprohibitedthem from cutting ship
timber themselvesor suffering others to cutit." A
modernscholar remarks,"The instructions of the Senate
tothe commissionersimply that the minesand royalestates had become the propertyof the Roman state."7According to the April occupationstatute mentioned
above,the Western occupying powers reservedto them-selvespowerinsuch fieldsas reparations, civil aviation,
andforeigntrade."Macedoniaproper was dividedinto four independentrepublics according to the national geographicallines soclearly marked out by thehigh mountain ranges andrivers ofthe country."8 No special effort wasmade toprovide each section withadequate industries, farms,seaports, etc.,and thusmake itself-sufficient. Inaddi-tion, commerciumtmongthe severalrepublicswasfor-bidden. Faced withdecliningrevenueaftertheclosingofthegold andsilvermines,andcrippledbyrestrictionsontrade,Macedonsoonfoundhereconomicsituationunbearable.Sincethe zonesof the Westernpowersareoperatingmore orlesscooperatively, theactualdividinglinemustbedrawnonlybetween WestandEastGermany.Cur-rencydifficulties havevirtually eliminated
between EastandWestGermanyonanylargescale.Before thewar,WestGermany accountedfor86percentofGermany's totalproductionofsteel,80percentof itscoal,61percentofits industrialproducts,butcnly45percentofitsfarmproducts.Thelossofthefarmmarketforindustrialproductsandthenecessityofimportingfoodstuffshavecontributed to West Ger-many'seconomic difficulties.Unemployment sgenerallyconsideredanaccurateindicationof thefinancialstate ofanation;"Althoughtheleadersof thebig political
sincethecampaignbegan, hereinSchiersteinunemploy-ment ismoreimportant thananinternationalauthorityforthe
friendsandcourtiers ofPerseus,thegeneralsof thearmies, thecommandersof thefleets andgarrisons, allwhoheld anyemployment fromhim, weretoaccompanytheconsulintoItaly,togetherwiththeirchildren....`10"Itwas a cruelmockerywhen thepeople ofthefourdistrictswere calleduponto electan administrativecouncil for eachone of them.Noticewasgiventhat allthosenamedin apublishedblack-listwere toleave thecountry andreportthemselves toItalyuponpain ofdeath;ameasurewhich atonestrokeremovedeveryoneconversant withaffairs ofgovernment,andleft thepeople withouttheirnaturalleaders.""lTheremoval ofthe topNazisbyexecutionand im-prisonment, theelaborateprogram ofdenazificationun-dertakenby theAllies,thedifficultiesencountered insecuringcompetentofficialsforgovernmentalpostswhowere freeof anytaintofNazism,all aretoofamiliar towarrantrecounting indetailhere.It isinteresting thattheRomanprogram of"demacedonification"entbeyondtheboundariesofMacedon:"Thearrangementsin
withPerseusand ofotherswho,rightly orwrongly,weresuspectedofpro-Macedoniantendencies."12
Larseni,loc.cit.(note 3,above).7Larsen,op. cit.(note3,above), p.299.8TenneyFrank,RomanImperialism(NewYork:Macmillan,1914), p.208.9DrewMiddleton,"AsSchiersteinGoes tothePolls," NewYorkTimesMagazine,August14,1949,p.40.10V.Duruy,TheHistoryofRome,trans.M.M.RipleyandW.J.Clarke,ed.J.P.Mahaffy(E3oston:JewettPublishingCom.pany,1883),II,178.11Heitland,loc.cit.(note 5,above).