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History of Buddhism in Tibet

History of Buddhism in Tibet

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Published by Milan Shakya
A Short History of Buddhism in Tibet in Nepali Language. The article my Milan Shakya covers the History of Buddhism in Tibet in 2 periods namely, First Transmission of Tibetan Buddhism and Later Transmission of Tibetan Buddhism.
A Short History of Buddhism in Tibet in Nepali Language. The article my Milan Shakya covers the History of Buddhism in Tibet in 2 periods namely, First Transmission of Tibetan Buddhism and Later Transmission of Tibetan Buddhism.

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Categories:Types, Research, History
Published by: Milan Shakya on Jul 14, 2010
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11/29/2012

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 page 1
ltAatL af} 4wd{sf];+lIfKt Oltxf; 
A
 
S
HORT
H
ISTORY OF
B
UDDHISM IN
T
IBET
 
ldng zfSo
rfs'kf6, nlntk'/
ltAatnfO{To; b]zsf jfl;Gbfx¿n] 
ef] 
!
 
eGb5g\. o; b]znfO{lxpFsf]b]z jf 3fª\5]g
@
klgelgG5 . ltAatL pRr e" ldn]Pp6f ljzfn e" v08 cf]u6]sf]5 . ef}uf]lns lx;fan]ltAatsf]  If]qkmn !) nfv ju{lsnf]ld6/ eGbf Hofbf 5 h'g ;+o'Qm /fHo cd]l/sfsf]Ps rf}yfO{e'efu xf]. ltAatL pRre" ldsf]pFrfO{;/b/ !^))) kmL6 hlt 5 .
#
rf/}lt/ cUnf cUnf lxdlzv/x¿ /kj{tx¿n]3]/]sf 5g . To:tf]pRr kj{t z[ +vnf ;w}lxpFn]9flsPsf]x'G5 / lxpFklUnP/ ag]sf]  lxdgbL ltAatL v]tsf nflu l;+rfOsf ¿kdf k|of]u x'g]ub{5 . ltAatL e" ldsf]s;/L pTklt eof]  eGg]af/]df Uofn/fj\;fNj]d]nf]Ëdf Pp6f rfvnfUbf]ljj/0f lbOPsf]5 M k/fk" j{sfndf ;Dk" 0f{  e" ld h;nfO{clxn]ltAat elgG5 kfgLd'lg lyof], kl5 7" nf]ef/t jif{sf]e" ld Plzof dxfåLkdf cs:dft\7f]lSsof]. 7f]lSsbfv]/L hndUg e" ld la:tf/}aflx/ lg:sg yfNof]. kmn:j¿k ljZjsf]  ;jf] {Rr lxdfnx¿sf]lgdf{0f eof]/ ;a}eGbf cUnf]e" ld h'g clxn]ltAatsf]gfdn] lrlgG5  To;sf]klg lgdf{0f eof]. ltAatL e" ld alg;s]kl5 ;f]>f]tsf cg';f/ ToxfFb'O{6f jfl;Gbf dfq lyP . afFb/ / /fIfzgL . afb/ ;fIfft\cjnf]lst] Zj/ s?0ffdo af]lw;™js}lgdf{0fsfo lyof]To;}n]  zfGt, WofgL / s?0ffn]o'Qm :jefjsf]lyof]/ ;w}Wofgdf nLg x'GYof]. /fIf;gLdf h+unL efj / jf;gf lyof]. cfkm" PSnL ePsLn];fyLsf]nflu Psbd 56kl6P/ pm a]:;/L ?g yfnL . afFb/n]  /fIf;gL /f]Psf];'Gof]. p;df /fIf;gLk|lt 7" nf]s?0ff hfu[t eof]. To;kl5 afFb/n]/fIf;gL;+u}  ljjfx u¥of]. logLx¿af6 hDdf ^ hgf ;Gtfg hlGdP . ;a};Gtfgx¿ dflg; eP/ hlGdP .
$
 clxn]ltAatLx¿ oxL+b'O{jfb/ / /fIfzgLnfO{cfˆgf k" j{h 7fGb5g\.
!
ltAatL lnlkdf
 
 ད
 
n]lvG5 . w]/}h;f]Oltxf;sf/x¿n];f]zAb pRrf/0f ug{ghfg]/ ef]b\eg]/ klg n]v]sf]  kfOG5 . zfob ToxL ef]b\af6 ltAatsf]gfd}ef]6 x'g uPsf]x'g ;S5 . t/ ltAat eGg]gfpFs;/L /xg uof]  eGg];DaGwdf dt}So 5}g .
@
གངས༌ཅན
 
cyf{t lxpFsf]e" ld -
The Land of Snow
_ . ljb]zL lstfax¿df ltAatnfO{oxL gfd lbOPsf]x'G5 .
 
#
x]g' {xf];\M
Marylin M. Rhie & Robert A. F. Thurman,
Wisdom and Compassion: The Sacred Art of Tibet 
, (London:Thames and Hudson Ltd., 1991), p. 20
 
$
x]g' {xf];\M
Mccomas Taylor and Chodak Yuthok (tr.),
The Clear Mirror 
, (New York: Snow Lion Publications,1996), pp. 75-79.
To;a]nf b]lv g}ltAatdf af]lw;™j cfof{jnf]lst] Zj/sf]ljz]if s[kf /lxcfPsf]5 . ltAat / ltAatL hgtfnfO{a' 4wd{df lblIft u/]/ p4f/ ug{sf nflu af]lw;™j cfof{jnf]lst] Zj/nfO{eujfg\zfSod'lg a' 4n]g}cf1f lbg'ePsf]lyof]. of]s'/f ltAatL u|Gy
བཀའ༌མས༌ཀ༌ལ༌མ༌
 
-sf 5]d\sf vf]n\df_ df pNn]lvt 5 .
 
 
 page 2
k|fu P}ltxfl;s sfnb]lv clxn];Dd u/L ltAatdf hDdf # j6f wd{x¿ km}lnPsf]kfOG5 . tL x'g\M != dg'io wd{-ld 5\of]P_
%
, @= af]g wd{-emfqmLwd{_
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/ #= lbJo wd{jf af} 4 wd{
.
 dg' io wd{ cyf{  t\ld 5Øf] P 
ltAatdf a' 4wd{ k|j]z x'g'eGbf w]/}klxn]sf]wd{xf]. o;nfO{wd{  eGbf klg dfgj ljZjf; eg]klg x'G5 . o;df cf:yf /fVg]cflbd ltAatLx¿ :yfgLo b]jtf, k|  ]t lkzfrnfO{efsn uy] {. tL b]j k|  ]t lkzfrx¿ ltAat b]zsf];a}e" lddf a;f]jf; ub{5g\  eGg]pgLx¿sf]ljZjf; lyof]. dg'io wd{sf]cEof; ugf{n]ljleGg nf}lss nfex¿ k|fKt eOG5  eGg]7" nf]ljZjf; lyof]. h:t}To;n]s'g}klg xflg gf]S;fgL x'g'af6 hf]ufpF5, cGgafnLx¿ lju|b}g, ;lk|G5g\, :jf:Yo /fd|f]x'G5, w]/}wg sdfpg ;lsG5 OToflb lsl;dsf]ljZjf; . tL b]ptf tyf lkzfrx¿ d'Votof cfsfz, k[YjL / kftfndf /xG5g\eGg]logLx¿sf]ljZjf; xf].
*
 tL b]j lkzfrx¿nfO{;w} l/emfpg'k5{gq logLx¿n];j{gf; kfl/lbG5, / /f]u nufOlbP/ Hofg}  lnOlbG5 eGg]ltAatLx¿ dfGby]. To;}n]plxn]sf ltAatLx¿ tL b]jtf lkzfrsf]sf]kaf6 aRg a8f];fjwfgL ckgfpFy]/ pgLx¿nfO{l/emfpg kz'aln oxfF;Dd ls dfgjaln ;d]t lbg]ub{y].
 af] g wd{ 
k|fs[lts wd{kl5sf]t/ a' 4wd{sf]pbo x'g'eGbf klxn]sf]ltAatL wd{sf ¿kdf dflgG5 . af]g eGgfn]To:tf]lsl;dsf]k'/f]lxtnfO{hgfpF5 h;n]:yfgLo k|  ]t lkzfrx¿nfO{dl/– ;s]sfx¿sf]klg ;'vsf nflu efsn ub{5g\. af]gx¿n]k" hf ubf{kz'-3f]8f, ofs jf e]8f_ aln lbg], vfBk]o r9fpg], d[tsnfO{w]/}/Tgx¿n]9fSg]OToflb ub{5g\. o;/L k" hf ubf{  dl/;s]sfx¿nfO{w]/}nfe x'G5 eGg]ljZjf; ul/G5 . w]/}h;f]To:tf]sfd /fhfx¿nfO{ul/GYof]. To;}n]af]gkf]x¿ /fhk'/f]lxt g}lyP . o;}n]ubf{sfnfGt/df klg af]gkf]x¿sf]ltAatL /fhsfhdf cTolws¿kdf xfnLd'xfnL /Xof]. af]g wd{dg'io wd{eGbf clnslt kl/is[t ePsf]wd{lyof].
 lbJo wd{ cyf{  t Nxf 5Øf] P 
eGgfn]a' 4 wd{nfO{hgfpFb5 . ltAatdf a' 4wd{sf]k|rf/ k|;f/nfO{  klg b'O{P}ltxfl;s r/0fdf ljeflhg ug{;lsG5 . != a' 4 wd{sf]k|rf/ k|;f/sf]klxnf]o'u
(
 @= a' 4 wd{sf]k|rf/ k|;f/sf]bf;|f]o'u
!)
 
%
༌ས
 
-
Human Religion or Animism in the Tibetan Folk Religion
_
 
^
 
 ན༌ས
 
c+u|  ]hL lxHh]M
 bon chos,
pRrf/0f M
 bön chö
-af]g 5Øf]P_
 
༌ས
 
c+u|  ]hL lxHh]M
lha chos,
pRrf/0f M
lha chö
-Nxf 5Øf]P_ cyf{t lbJo wd{.
 
*
cfsf; / jfo'd08ndf /xg]b]jtfnfO{ 
ང༌
 
t]ª\Nxf elgG5 . k[YjLdf /xg]b]jtfnfO{ 
བར༌བཙན
 
ef/\r]g\elgG5  eg]tn cyf{t hnd'lg /xg]x¿nfO{ 
གག༌ 
 
of]u\n'elgG5 . o;af/]lj:t[t JofVof / ltAatdf k|rlnt tLgj6f wd{sf]qmdfut juL{s/0fsf af/]df hf]g kfj/n]lj:t[t¿kn]cWoog ug' {ePsf]5 . x]g' {xf];\M
John Powers,
 Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism
, (New York: Snow Lion Publications, 1995). pp. 431-447.
 
(
ltAatdf klxnf]kN6 ePsf]a' 4 wd{sf]k|rf/ k|;f/nfO{ 
༌དར 
 
ªf8f/ cyjf Tof]a]nf ag]sf]k/Dk/fnfO{klxnf]  cg'jfbsf]k/Dk/f
༌འར 
 
klg elgG5 .
 
!)
ltAatdf kl5Nnf]a' 4 wd{sf]k|rf/ k|;f/nfO{ 
 ༌དར 
 
l58f/ cyjf Tof]a]nf ag]sf k/Dk/fx¿nfO{kl5Nnf]  cg'jfbsf k/Dk/f
 ༌འར 
 
klg elgG5 .
 
 
 page 3
a'4wd{sf]k|rf/ k|;f/sf]klxnf]o'
(The First Transmission of Buddhism)
 
ltAatdf a' 4wd{Nxfyf]yf]/L Go]g\5]g\sf]kfnfdf k|j]z u/]sf]lyof]eg]/ ljZjf; ul/G5 . ;g\!&# df hGd]sf Nxfyf]yf]/L of/n'ª\
!!
eGg]7fpFdf /fHo ub{y]. logsf j+zsf]gfd g}of/n'ª\j+z lyof]. logL of/\n'ª\j+zsf c6\7fO;f} +/fhf lyof]. elgG5 ls pgL ;f7L jif{sf]pd]/df pgsf]  oDa'Nxfvfª\b/jf/sf]sf};Ldf cfsfzaf6 Pslbg
sf/08Jo"
/
/Tgd] 3;"
h:tf af} 4 u|Gy, s]xL kljq cl:ywft'x¿ / Pp6f kljq ;Gb's v;]sf]lyof]. u|Gy ;+:s[tdf n]lvPsf]x' Fbf /fhfn]  To;sf]Ps cIf/ klg a'‰g ;s]gg\. t}klg efjL k':tfnfO{sfd nfUg]5 egL /fhfn]tL ;a rLhx¿nfO{a8f]lxkmfhtsf ;fy ;fFr]/ /fv].
 
Nxfyf]yf]/Lsf];dodf a' 4wd{sf]k':ts h:t}sf/08Jo" x
!@
/ s]xL kljq cl:ywft'x¿ dfqltAatleq l5/]sf]lyof]t/ a' 4wd{sf]vf;}ljsf; ePsf]lyPg . t/ Nxfyf]yf]/Lsf]kfFrf}k':tf ;f]ª\rf]ª\uDkf]sf];dodf a' 4wd{ltAatdf ;kmntfk" j{s k|j]z u/]/ lgs}ljsl;t klg x'g k'Uof]. of/n'ª\j+zs}## cf} +/fhf
;f]ª\rf]ª\uDkf]-O=;= ^!&–^%)_ n] 
cfˆgf l5d]sL d'n's h:t}ef/t, g]kfn, rLg OToflb b]zdf a' 4wd{sf]lgs}ljsf; eP/ tL ;a}b]zx¿ Psbd ;Eo / ;d[ 4zfnL ePsf]b]Vbf cfˆgf]h+unL c;Eo dflg;x¿n]el/Psf]b]zdf klg af} 4wd{km}nfpg'k¥of]/ b]znfO{  ;Eo / ljsl;t kfg' {k¥of]eGg]p2] Zo lnP/ ;f]ª\rf]ª\uDkf]n] g]kfnsL e[s'6L
!#
/ rLgsL j]ª\r]g\ 
!!
ཡར༌ང 
 
c+u|  ]hL lxHh]M
Yar lung,
ltAatsf]k|yd /fhf GoyL 5]Gkf]klg of/\n'Ë j+zs}lyof]. Nxfyf]yf]l/ pgs}  j+zh\lyP . tL k|yd /fhfsf]pb\ejsf af/]df Pp6f ltAatL ls+jbGtL o:tf]5 M of/\n'Ë eGg]pkTosfdf cjl:yt of/ nfg\zfª\kf]kj{tdf cfsfzaf6 k|yd /fhfsf]cjt/0f ePsf]lyof]. pgL cfsfzaf6 cfPsf]x' Fbf :yfgLo dflg;x¿n]pgnfO{cfˆgf]b]zsf /fhf agfO{kfnsLdf af]s]/ NofP . pgsf]gfd GoyL 5]Gkf] 
གཉའ༌༌བཙན༌ 
/xguof]. kl5sf ^ k':tf;Dd klg /fhfx¿ To;/L g}8f]/Lsf];xf/fn]cfsfzaf6 cjt/0f u/]/ /fHo ub{y]t/ ;ftf}jf cf7f} +/fhf l8u'd\5]Gkf]sf]hLjgsfndf Tof]8f]/L aLr}df sfl6of]/ elgG5 pgL km]l/ :ju{df cf/f]x0f ug{;s]gg\. x]g' {xf];\M
The Clear Mirror, pp. 80-83.
klxnfsf ;a}/fhfx¿ af]g\kf]g}lyP .
 
!@
o; u|GynfO{ltAatL efiffdf
འཕགས༌པ༌ཟ༌མ༌ག༌བད༌པ༌ས༌༌བ༌ག༌པ༌ན༌༌མ 
 
cfo{sf/08Jo" x gfd dxfofg ;" q elgG5 . of]u|Gy cfsfzaf6 sf};Ldf v;]sf]eGg]ltAatL ljZjf; /x]tfklg jf:tjdf ef/taf6}a' 4/lIftn]ltAatdf nu]sf]xf]. lsgeg]cfkm" n]ga'em]sf]gb]v]sf]s'/fx¿nfO{b}jL ¿k lbg'k|rng}xf]. of]s'/fdf 8]a y]/ ªf]g\kf]sf n]vs uf]nf]rfjfsf]klg ;dy{g 5 . o; af/]yk hfgsf/Lsf nflu x]g' {xf];\M
Glenn H. Mullin -
The Fourteen Dalai Lamas: A Sacred Legacy of Reincarnation
, (New Delhi: Jaico Publishing House, 2008.), p. 27.
;f]u|Gyg]kfndf k'u]kl5 cufl8 u'0f Pp6f yk]/ u'0fsf/08Jo" x ;" q aGof]. u'0fsf/08Jo" x g]jf/ dxfofg af} 4wd{sf]  Pp6f dx™jk" 0f{u|Gy xf]. o;df d" ndf gePsf / kl5 ylkPsf s'/fx¿ klg 5g\/ af]lwrof{jtf/sf Znf]sx¿ klg To;df /x]af6 Tof]u'0fsf/08Jo" x kSs}klg cf7f}ztfAbLeGbf -zflGtb]jsf]sfn_ kl5 k'g{n]vg u/]sf]  x'g'k5{. d" n sf/08Jo" x u|Gy g}slxn]n]lvPsf]xf]eGg]s'/f eGg lgs}uf¥xf]5 . lsgeg]dfly elgPem} +  To;df w]/}s'/fx¿ ylkb}nluPsf]5 . t/ k|f= dLg axfb'/ zfSosf]ts{adf]lhd To; u|Gysf s]xL efu t];|f]  ztfAbL cufl8sf]x'g'k5{/ bzf} +ztfAbL;Dd cfOk'Ubf dfq u'0fsf/08Jo" x ;" qsf]¿k lnof]. x]g' {xf];\M
MinBahadur Shakya (ed.),
Guna Karandavyuha Sutra
, (Lalitpur: Nagarjuna Institute of Exact Methods, 1997). p. 19.
 
!#
e[s'l6nfO{ltAatL efiffdf
་བན
 
l7 r'g\elgG5 . g]kfnL /fhs'df/L e[s'l6af/]g]kfnL j+zfjnL tyf Oltxf;df /fd|f];+u pNn]v ul/Psf]kfOFb}g . To;sf]nflu xfdLn]ltAatL >f]tx¿ h:t}Uofn\/fa\;fNj]d]nf]ª\/ dfl0f sfa'd\x]g' {k5{. dfl0fsfa'd\>f]tnfO{cfwf/ dfg]/ k|f= dLg axfb'/ zfSon] 
 Nepalese Princess Bhrikuti Devi
 n]Vg'ePsf]5 . x]g' {xf];\M
Min Bahadur Shakya,
 Princess Bhrikuti Devi
, (New Delhi: Book Faith India, 1997).
 

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