There are different types of fermentation based on the foodsubstrate and the product form after the process. As for alcoholicfermentation we convert sugars, to ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide.Every different alcoholic beverage has its own unique substrate. Inwine making we use as substrate the sugar found in the grape fruit,table wines contain between 10 and 14 percent alcohol.The main grapevine cultivated for wine production is the European winegrape
, Vitis vinifera.
Beers, made from cereal grains, has an averagealcohol content of 2 to 6 percent; rums are from molasses while whiskeysare from grain mash.The microoraganisms used in alcoholic fermentation are those whichare already inherent to the substrate, as in this case, yeast. Alcoholicfermentation begins when the glucose is ingested by the microorganismand is broken down to pyruvic acid by the use of the yeast¶s enzyme.Pyruvic acid is This pyruvic acid is then converted to CO2, ethanol, andenergy for the cell.Humans have long taken advantage of this process in making bread,beer, and wine. In these three product the same microorganism is used:the common yeast or
Linda F. BissonChristian E. Butzke
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