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Parasitology Lesson 2

Parasitology Lesson 2

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Para-Lec Lesson 2
Para-Lec Lesson 2

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: John Henry G. Gabriel IV on Jul 14, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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02/11/2013

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7/3/20101
PARASITOLOGY LESSON 2SCOPE
Host –Parasite Relationship
Host
Parasite
Parasite
Host
Reservoir of Infection
Mode of Transmission
Types of Infection
Infection versus diseases
Stages in Infection
HOST –PARASITE RELATIONSHIP
ADAPTATION
Causes changes in the molecular, biology,biochemistry, immunology and structure of theparasite.
SURVIVAL
HOST –PARASITE RELATIONSHIP
MOST NOTICEABLE TYPES OF ADAPTATION
1.
Locomotion organs
1.
Pseudopodia
2.
Cilia
Free living flatworms
3.
Flagella
Gardia, Trichomonas
4.
Hooks and suckers
flatworm (endoparasite)
2.
Size and Shape of Parasite
1.
Thickened integument
resist enzymes and stomach juices
HOST –PARASITE RELATIONSHIP
Entamoeba histolytica 
secrete
cysteineproteinases
which allow the parasite topenetrate the mucosa and adhere to theunderlying layer and surrounding tissues.
PARASITE
HOST RELATIONSHIP
1.
INTERFERENCE OF VITAL PROCESSES OFTHE HOST THRU ENZYME SYSTEMNutrients -------------------> energyhostparasite
E. histolytica 
 –cysteineproteinase-digest cellular materials-degrade epithelial basementmembrane
 
7/3/20102
PARASITE
HOST RELATIONSHIP
2. Invasion and destruction of host tissue.example: malaria
EFFECTS (HOST
PARASITE)
Factors that determine the outcome of infection
P. falcifarum-Sickle Cell Trait
protection
P. vivaxDuffy blood
susceptible
Nutritional Status of the host
High protein diet
NOT suitable to development ofintestinal protozoans
Low protein diet
favors the appearance ofamoebiasis
RESERVOIR OF INFECTION
The source of an infectious agent
CARRIER -An individual who carries an infectiousagent without manifesting symptoms, yet who cantransmit the agent to another individual
FOMITES -Any inanimate object capable of being anintermediate in the indirect transmission of aninfectious agent
MODE OF TRANSMISSION
1.
Thru skin
1.
Direct penetration
filariformlarva of hookwormsand Strongyloides
2.
Inoculation
thru vectors
1.
Female mosquito malaria, Brugiaand Wuchereria
2.
SandflyLeishmania
3.
Tsetse fly Trypanosomagambienseand T. gambiense
4.
Reduviidbugs, kissing bug –Trypanosomacruzi
5.
Simulium-Onchocerca
MODE OF TRANSMISSION
2. Thru digestive systema. ingestion of embryonatedeggex. Ascaris, Trichurisb. ingestion of embryo in infected fleshex. Dracunculusmedinensis3. Thru reproductive system –sexual contactex. Trichomonasvaginalis
MODE OF TRANSMISSION
4. Thru respiratory tracta. cotaminatedair -ex. Enterobiusb. contaminated river –ex. Acantamoeba&Nigleria5. Thru placenta –Tooxoplasmagondii
 
7/3/20103
MODE OF TRANSMISSION
6. Thru contact with animals
AnimalParasiteMethodof Transmission
CatsToxoplasmaIngest of cystDipylidiumIngest infectedfleasDogsDipylidiumIngestinfected fleasEchinococcusIngest eggToxocaraIngesteggRodentsHymenolopisIngestegg or cyst
INFECTION vsDISEASE
DISEASE -
Any deviation from a condition of good healthand well-being
INFECTION -
A disease condition caused by the presence orgrowth of infectious microorganisms or parasites inside the body
TYPES OF INFECTION
ACUTE INFECTION
An infection characterized by sudden onset,rapid progression, and often with severesymptoms
CHRONIC INFECTION
An infection characterized by delayed onsetand slow progression
TYPES OF INFECTION
PRIMARY INFECTION
An infection that develops in an otherwisehealthy individual
SECONDARY INFECTION
An infection that develops in an individualwho is already infected with a differentpathogen
TYPES OF INFECTION
Localized Infection
An infection that is restricted to a specificlocation or region within the body of thehost
Systemic Infection
infection that has spread to severalregions or areas in the body of the host
TYPES OF INFECTION
Clinical Infection
An infection with obvious observableor detectable symptoms
Subclinical Infection
An infection with few or no obvioussymptoms

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