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Multi Verse

Multi Verse

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Published by sukalyan_g6864
A discussion about the concepts of parallel universe, M theory
A discussion about the concepts of parallel universe, M theory

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Published by: sukalyan_g6864 on Jul 14, 2010
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02/23/2013

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To appear in
Science and Ultimate Reality: From Quantum to Cosmos
, honoring John Wheeler’s 90th birthday,J.D. Barrow, P.C.W. Davies, & C.L. Harper eds., Cambridge University Press (2003)
Parallel Universes
Max Tegmark
Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104; max@physics.upenn.edu 
(January 23 2003.)
Abstract:
I survey physics theories involving parallel universes, which form a natural four-levelhierarchy of multiverses allowing progressively greater diversity. Level I: A generic prediction of inflation is an infinite ergodic universe, which contains Hubble volumes realizing all initial conditions— including an identical copy of you about 10
10
29
m away. Level II: In chaotic inflation, otherthermalized regions may have different physical constants, dimensionality and particle content. LevelIII: In unitary quantum mechanics, other branches of the wavefunction add nothing qualitativelynew, which is ironic given that this level has historically been the most controversial. Level IV:Other mathematical structures give different fundamental equations of physics. The key question isnot whether parallel universes exist (Level I is the uncontroversial cosmological concordance model),but how many levels there are. I discuss how multiverse models can be falsified and argue that thereis a severe “measure problem” that must be solved to make testable predictions at levels II-IV.
Is there another copy of you reading this article, decid-ing to put it aside without finishing this sentence whileyou are reading on? A person living on a planet calledEarth, with misty mountains, fertile fields and sprawlingcities, in a solar system with eight other planets. Thelife of this person has been identical to yours in everyrespect – until now, that is, when your decision to readon signals that your two lives are diverging.You probably find this idea strange and implausible,and I must confess that this is my gut reaction too. Yetit looks like we will just have to live with it, since thesimplest and most popular cosmological model today pre-dicts that this person actually exists in a Galaxy about10
10
29
meters from here. This does not even assume spec-ulative modern physics, merely that space is infinite andrather uniformly filled with matter as indicated by recentastronomical observations. Your
alter ego
is simply a pre-diction of the so-called concordance model of cosmology,which agrees with all current observational evidence andis used as the basis for most calculations and simulationspresented at cosmology conferences. In contrast, alter-natives such as a fractal universe, a closed universe anda multiply connected universe have been seriously chal-lenged by observations.The farthest you can observe is the distance that lighthas been able to travel during the 14 billion years sincethe big-bang expansion began. The most distant visibleobjects are now about 4
×
10
26
meters away
, and a sphere
After emitting the light that is now reaching us, the mostdistant things we can see have receded because of the cosmicexpansion, and are now about about 40 billion light yearsaway.
of this radius defines our observable universe, also calledour
Hubble volume
, our
horizon volume
or simply ouruniverse. Likewise, the universe of your above-mentionedtwin is a sphere of the same size centered over there, noneof which we can see or have any causal contact with yet.This is the simplest (but far from the only) example of parallel universes.By this very definition of “universe”, one might ex-pect the notion that our observable universe is merely asmall part of a larger “multiverse” to be forever in the do-main of metaphysics. Yet the epistemological borderlinebetween physics and metaphysics is defined by whethera theory is experimentally testable, not by whether itis weird or involves unobservable entities. Technology-powered experimental breakthroughs have therefore ex-panded the frontiers of physics to incorporate ever moreabstract (and at the time counterintuitive) concepts suchas a round rotating Earth, an electromagnetic field,time slowdown at high speeds, quantum superpositions,curved space and black holes. As reviewed in this ar-ticle, it is becoming increasingly clear that multiversemodels grounded in modern physics can in fact be em-pirically testable, predictive and falsifiable. Indeed, asmany as four distinct types of parallel universes (Figure1) have been discussed in the recent scientific literature,so that the key question is not whether there is a multi-verse (since Level I is rather uncontroversial), but ratherhow many levels it has.1
 
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Assumptions:
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distribution
Evidence: -
Microwave background meaurements point to
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- Simplest model
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erent constants, particles and dimensionality
Assumption:
Chaotic inflation occurred
Evidence: -
Inflation theory explains flat space, scale-invariantfluctuations, solves horizon problem and monopoleproblems and can naturally explain such bubbles- Explains fine-tuned parameters
Level 3: The Many
!)
lds of Quantum Physics
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Assumption:
Physics unitary
Evidence: -
Experimental support for unitary physics-
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erent fundamental equations of physics
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Mathematical existence = physical existence
Evidence: -
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ectiveness of math in physics- Answers Wheeler/Hawking question:"why these equations, not others"
2
 
I. LEVEL I: REGIONS BEYOND OUR COSMICHORIZON
Let us return to your distant twin. If space is infi-nite and the distribution of matter is sufficiently uniformon large scales, then even the most unlikely events musttake place somewhere. In particular, there are infinitelymany other inhabited planets, including not just one butinfinitely many with people with the same appearance,name and memories as you. Indeed, there are infinitelymany other regions the size of our observable universe,where every possible cosmic history is played out. Thisis the Level I multiverse.
A. Evidence for Level I parallel universes
Although the implications may seem crazy andcounter-intuitive, this spatially infinite cosmologicalmodel is in fact the simplest and most popular one onthe market today. It is part of the cosmological concor-dance model, which agrees with all current observationalevidence and is used as the basis for most calculationsand simulations presented at cosmology conferences. Incontrast, alternatives such as a fractal universe, a closeduniverse and a multiply connected universe have been se-riously challenged by observations. Yet the Level I mul-tiverse idea has been controversial (indeed, an assertionalongthese lines was one of the heresiesfor which the Vat-ican had Giordano Bruno burned at the stake in 1600
),so let us review the status of the two assumptions (infi-nite space and “sufficiently uniform” distribution).How large is space? Observationally, the lower boundhas grown dramatically (Figure 2) with no indication of an upper bound. We all accept the existence of thingsthat we cannot see but could see if we moved or waited,like ships beyond the horizon. Objects beyond cosmichorizon have similar status, since the observable universegrows by a light-year every year as light from furtheraway has time to reach us
. Since we are all taught aboutsimple Euclidean space in school, it can therefore be dif-ficult to imagine how space could
not 
be infinite — forwhat would lie beyond the sign saying
“SPACE ENDS HERE — MIND THE GAP”
? Yet Einstein’s theory of gravity allows space to be finite by being differently con-nected than Euclidean space, say with the topology of 
Bruno’s ideas have since been elaborated by,
e.g.
, Brundrit(1979), Garriga & Vilenkin (2001b) and Ellis (2002), all of whom have thus far avoided the stake.
If the cosmic expansion continues to accelerate (currentlyan open question), the observable universe will eventually stopgrowing.
a four-dimensional sphere or a doughnut so that travel-ing far in one direction could bring you back from theopposite direction. The cosmic microwave backgroundallows sensitive tests of such finite models, but has sofar produced no support for them — flat infinite modelsfit the data fine and strong limits have been placed onboth spatial curvature and multiply connected topolo-gies. In addition, a spatially infinite universe is a genericprediction of the cosmological theory of inflation (Gar-riga & Vilenkin 2001b). The striking successes of infla-tion listed below therefore lend further support to theidea that space is after all simple and infinite just as welearned in school.How uniform is the matter distribution on large scales?In an “island universe” model where space is infinite butall the matter is confined to a finite region, almost allmembers of the Level I multiverse would be dead, con-sisting of nothing but empty space. Such models havebeen popular historically, originally with the island be-ing Earth and the celestial objects visible to the nakedeye, and in the early 20th century with the island beingthe known part of the Milky Way Galaxy. Another non-uniform alternative is a fractal universe, where the mat-ter distribution is self-similar and all coherent structuresin the cosmic galaxy distribution are merely a small partof even larger coherent structures. The island and fractaluniverse models have both been demolished by recent ob-servations as reviewed in Tegmark (2002). Maps of thethree-dimensional galaxy distribution have shown thatthe spectacular large-scale structure observed (galaxygroups, clusters, superclusters,
etc.
) gives way to dulluniformity on large scales, with no coherent structureslarger than about 10
24
m. More quantitatively, imagineplacing a sphere of radius
R
at various random locations,measuring how much mass
is enclosed each time, andcomputing the variation between the measurements asquantified by their standard deviation ∆
. The relativefluctuations ∆
M/M 
have been measured to be of orderunity on the scale
R
3
×
10
23
m, and dropping on largerscales. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey has found ∆
M/M 
as small as 1% on the scale
R
10
25
m and cosmic mi-crowave background measurements have established thatthe trend towards uniformity continues all the way out tothe edge of our observable universe (
R
10
27
m), where
M/M 
10
5
. Barring conspiracy theories where theuniverse is designed to fool us, the observations thusspeak loud and clear: space as we know it continues farbeyond the edge of our observable universe, teeming withgalaxies, stars and planets.
B. What are Level I parallel universes like?
The physics description of the world is traditionallysplit into two parts: initial conditions and laws of physicsspecifying how the initial conditions evolve. Observers3

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