SUBMITTED BYMUNISH KUMAR B.V.C.O.E.(3
Year) Now in 4
The India Meteorological Department was established in 1875. It is the National Meteorological
Service of thecountry and the principal government agency in all matters relating to meteorology, seismology and allied subjects The beginnings of meteorology in India can be traced to ancient times. Early philosophical writings of the 3000 B.C. era, such as the Upanishads, contain serious discussion about the processes of cloud formation and rain and the seasonal cycles caused by the movement of earth round the sun. Varahamihira's classical work, the Brihatsamhita, written around 500 A.D., provides clear evidence that a deep knowledge of atmospheric processesexisted even in those times. It was understood that rains come from the sun (Adityat Jayate Vrishti) and that good rainfall in the rainy season was the key to bountiful agriculture and food for the people. Kautilya's Arthashastracontains records of scientific measurements of rainfall and its application to the country's revenue and relief work. Kalidasa in his epic, 'Meghdoot', written around the seventh century, even mentions the date of onset of themonsoon over central India and traces the path of the monsoon clouds.To take meteorological observations and to provide current and forecast meteorological information for optimumoperation of weather-sensitive activities like agriculture, irrigation, shipping, aviation, offshore oil explorations,etc. To warn against severe weather phenomena like tropical cyclones, norwesters, dust storms, heavy rains and snow, cold and heat waves, etc., which cause destruction of life and property. To provide meteorological statisticsrequired for agriculture, water resource management, industries, oil exploration and other nation-building activities. To conduct and promote research in meteorology and allied disciplines. To detect and locateearthquakes and to evaluate seismicity in different parts of the country for development projects.