pesticides. As a result, pesticide use has tripled since 1970, but the percentage of crops lost to pests has remained constant.IV.Worldwide, irrigated acreage increased about 2.6 times from 1950 – 1980. By 2003,irrigated acreage represented 18% of all cropland and produced 40% of the world’sfood.A.Irrigation is still expanding, but at a much slower pace because of limits on water resources. Much of the current irrigation is unsustainable because groundwater resources are being depleted. In addition, production is being adversely affectedon as much as 1/3 of the world’s irrigated land because of waterlogging and theaccumulation of salts in the soil—consequences of irrigating where there is poor drainage.V.Several decades ago, plant geneticists developed new varieties of wheat, corn, and ricethat gave yields double to triple those of traditional varieties. This feat wasaccomplished by selecting strains that diverted more of the plant’s photosynthate tothe seed and away from the stems, leaves, and roots.The Green RevolutionI.The same technologies that gave rise to the agricultural revolution in the industrializedcountries were eventually introduced into the developing world. There, they gave birth to the remarkable increases in crop production called the Green Revolution.A.Within a few years, many of the world’s most populous countries turned thecorner from being grain importers to achieving stability, and, in some cases, even becoming grain exporters.B.The Green Revolution has probably done more than any other single scientificachievement to prevent hunger and malnutrition.C.The high-yielding modern varieties are now cultivated throughout the world andhave become the basis of food production in China, Latin America, the MiddleEast, southern Asia, and the industrialized nations.II.Because the technology raises yields without requiring new agricultural lands, the GreenRevolution has also held back a significant amount of deforestation in the developingworld.A.The crops do best on irrigated land; water shortages have begun to occur as aresult of this dependence.B.The modern varieties require constant inputs of fertilizer, pesticides, and energy-using mechanized labor, all of which can be in short supply in developingcountries.III.The CGIAR recently sponsored a study on the impact of the Green Revolution in thedeveloping world between 1960 and 2000. They came to the following conclusions:1.The early years of the Green Revolution were only the beginning; research onhigh-yielding crops has continued, and more varieties continue to be developed,released, and adopted by farmers.