B.Appoint ambassadors, judges, and other high officialsIII.Powers of the President That Are Shared with Congress as a WholeA.Approve legislationIV.The president’s power as commander in chief has grown to encompass not simply the direction of themilitary but also the management of the economy and the direction of foreign affairs.V.The president’s duty to “take care that the laws be rightfully executed” has become one of the most elastic phrases in the Constitution.VI.The greatest source of presidential power is found not in the Constitution but in politics and public opinion.A.Increasingly since the 1930s, Congress has passed laws that confer on the executive branch broadgrants of authority to achieve some general goals, leaving it up to the president and his deputies todefine the regulations and programs that will actually be put into effect.The Office of the PresidentIX.The team of presidential assistants has become increasingly large. The ability of a presidentialassistant to affect the president is governed by the rule of propinquity: in general power is wielded by people who are in the room when the decision is made.The White House OfficeI.There are three ways in which a president can organize his personal staff—through the “pyramid,”“circular,” and “ad hoc” methods.
In a pyramid structure, most assistants report through a hierarchy to a chief of staff, who then dealsdirectly with the president.
In a circular structure, cabinet secretaries and assistants report directly to the president.
In an ad hoc structure, task forces, committees, and informal groups of friends and advisors dealdirectly with the president.III.It is common for presidents to mix methods. Taken individually, each method has its advantages anddisadvantages.A.A pyramid structure provides for an orderly flow of information and decisions but does so at therisk of isolating or misinforming the president.B.The circular method has the virtue of giving the president a great deal of information, but at the price of conflict and confusion among secretaries and assistants.C.An ad hoc structure allows great flexibility, minimizes bureaucracy, and generates ideas andinformation from disparate channels, but it risks cutting the president off from the governmentofficials who are ultimately responsible for translating presidential decisions into policy.IV.Typically senior White House staff members are drawn from the ranks of the president’s campaign staff. Afew members will be experts brought in after the campaign.The Executive Office of the PresidentI.Agencies in the Executive Office report directly to the president and perform staff services for him but arenot located in the White House itself. The top positions in these agencies are filled by presidentialappointment, but must be confirmed by the Senate.A.The most important agency in terms of the president’s need for assistance in administering the federalgovernment is the Office of Management and Budget. It assembles and analyzes the figures that gointo the national budget, studies the organization and operations of the executive branch, devises plansfor reorganizing various departments and agencies, develops ways of getting better information aboutgovernment programs, and reviews proposals that cabinet departments want included in the president’slegislative program.B.It has traditionally been a nonpartisan agency, though it recently has begun to advocate policies more.The Cabinet
The cabinet is a product of tradition and hope. Cabinet officers are the heads of the 14 major executivedepartments. The president must struggle with Congress for control of these agencies.A.Having the power to make these appointments gives the president one great advantage: he has a lot of opportunities to reward friends and political supporters.Independent Agencies, Commissions, and JudgeshipsI.The president appoints people to 4 dozen or so agencies and commissions that are not considered part of the cabinet and that by law often have a quasi-independent status.A.The difference between an “executive” and “independent” agency is not precise. In general it meansthat the heads of executive agencies serve at the pleasure of the president and can be removed at his