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Vat dyes

Vat dyes

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Published by: usmanazeem on Jul 16, 2010
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10/03/2013

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Vat dyes
Vat dyes form a very important class of dyes for the cellulosic fibersbecause the dyeing produced with these have the highest overallfastness properties. All of these dyes have good fastness against wettreatments and crocking and most have light fastness in the region of 6-7. the vat dyes can also with stand oxizing agents like hydrogenperoxide, sodium chlorite and hypo chlorites, and extensively used fordyeing yarn that is to be woven along with the grey yarn. This clothcan undergo the pretreatment process like alkali boiling, bleaching andmercerizing without any damage to the dyed yarn. It may however bementioned that after the introduction of hydrogen peroxide tolerantreactive dyes, a good proportion of the yarn dyeing has been takenover by the reactive dyes. This is because the reactive dyes arerelatively less expensive ang are also easier to apply. In spite of thegreat in roads made by the reactive dyes for dyeing cotton woven andknit fabrics, vat dyes are still popular on account of the all round highfastness properties. Vat dyes are commonly used for superior qualityshirting materials, military uniforms, furnishings, curtains, toweling etc. There are about 60 vat dyes in the market that cover the entire gamutof shades except the deep red colors. Vat dyes are essentiallyinsoluble polycyclic aromatic compounds containing two or more pairsof quinone groups. It may be interesting to remember that indigo andtyrian purple, the earliest non natural dyes, also belong to this family.In order to apply to the cellulosic fibers, vat pigments are made watersoluble by reducing to hydro-quinone forms in an alkaline media. Theprocess is known as vatting, a term referring to a historical link withthe vegetable indigo dye that used to be reduced in wooden vats withnatural reducing agents like sugars. The present day vatting chemicalsare sodium hydroxide and a strong reducing agents (one with highreduction potential) sodium dithionite (Na2S2O4) commonly termed inindustry as sodium hydrosulphite or simply hydros. Sodium dithionitereduces the keto group of the dyes into the enol form and sodiumhydroxide forms sodium salt of the enol to make the dyes watersoluble. Caustic soda also neutralizes the acidic decompositionproducts of the reducing agent dithionite that are produced duringvatting and dyeing. Quantity of the reducing chemicals depends uponthe no of the keto groups present in the dyeing molecules to theextent of exposure of the dye bath to air. The reduction process maybe represented as shown below:Reduction is accompanied by a change in color that is due to alterationin the conjugation of the double bonds. The reduced indigo has a paleshade and so it was called the leuco (white) dye. This term is still usedalthough the leucos of many vat dyes are deeply colored.
 
Chemical structure of vat dyes
Vat dyes were developed soon after synthesis of indigo but the earlierdyes were either halogen derivatives or sulpher substituted indigo asshown below:
CI Vat Yellow 4CI VatOrange 1
 The vat dyes are often classified as indigoid, thio-indigoid andanthraquinonoid but majority of these belongs to the anthraquinonoidgroup. The thio-indigoid class also includes the hydrone blues that aretype of hybrids of sulpher and vat dyes are often used as substitute of indigo. The indigoid and thio-indigoid group of vat dyes have lowsubstantives for cellulose but the anthrax-quinone derivatives, onaccount of having more complex structures, posses high affinity. Thesealso have better all-round fastness properties then the other twogroups.
Dyeing structure of vat dyes

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