Chemical structure of vat dyes
Vat dyes were developed soon after synthesis of indigo but the earlierdyes were either halogen derivatives or sulpher substituted indigo asshown below:
CI Vat Yellow 4CI VatOrange 1
The vat dyes are often classified as indigoid, thio-indigoid andanthraquinonoid but majority of these belongs to the anthraquinonoidgroup. The thio-indigoid class also includes the hydrone blues that aretype of hybrids of sulpher and vat dyes are often used as substitute of indigo. The indigoid and thio-indigoid group of vat dyes have lowsubstantives for cellulose but the anthrax-quinone derivatives, onaccount of having more complex structures, posses high affinity. Thesealso have better all-round fastness properties then the other twogroups.
Dyeing structure of vat dyes