The chips are dried and then put into hopper reservoirs for melting. Polyester is a"melt spun" fiber, which means that it is heated, extruded through the spinnerets,and cools upon hitting the air. From there it is loosely wound around cylinders.
The fibers are then hot stretched until they are about five times their originallength in order to decrease their width. The fiber is then wound onto cones asfilaments or is crimped and then is cut into staple lengths.
Types of Polyester
The polyester fibers are generally available in two varieties- PET (polyethyleneterephthalate) and PCDT (poly-1, 4-cyclohexylene-dimethylene terephthalate).PET is the most common production. It is stronger than PCDT, while PCDT hasmore elasticity and resilience. PET can be used alone or blended with otherfabrics for making wrinkle free and stain resistant clothing that can retain itsshape. PCDT is more suitable for heavier applications, such as draperies andfurniture coverings. Modifications can be introduced in each of these varieties forobtaining specific properties.
For manufacturing PET Polyester, the main raw material isethylene derived from petroleum. It is oxidized to produce aglycol monomer dihydric alcohol which is further combined withanother monomer, terephthalic acid at a high temperature in a vacuum. Polymerization, the chemical process that produces thefinished polyester, is done with the help of catalysts. The colorlessmolten polyester then flows from a slot in a vessel on to a casting wheel and takes shape of a ribbon as it cools to hardness. The polymer thusproduced is then cut into very small chips, dried to remove all moisture and blended to make it uniform for getting it ready for spinning into yarn.