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BGP Case Studies

BGP Case Studies

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10/25/2012

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1/26/96-Rev: A1.2 Page 1Sam Halabi-cisco Systems
BGP4 Case Studies/Tutorial
Sam Halabi-cisco Systems
The purpose of this paper is to introduce the reader to the latest in BGP4 terminology anddesign issues. It is targeted to the novice as well as the experienced user. For any clarifica-tion or comments please send e-mail to shalabi@cisco.com.Copyright 1995 ©Cisco Systems Inc.
 
1/26/96-Rev: A1.2 Page 2Sam Halabi-cisco Systems
1.0Introduction..............................................................................................................4
1.1How does BGP work...........................................................................................................41.2What are peers (neighbors)..................................................................................................41.3Information exchange between peers...................................................................................4
2.0EBGP and IBGP......................................................................................................53.0Enabling BGP routing..............................................................................................6
3.1BGP Neighbors/Peers..........................................................................................................7
4.0BGP and Loopback interfaces...............................................................................105.0EBGP Multihop.....................................................................................................11
5.1EBGP Multihop (Load Balancing)....................................................................................12
6.0Route Maps............................................................................................................137.0Network command.................................................................................................17
7.1Redistribution.....................................................................................................................187.2Static routes and redistribution..........................................................................................20
8.0Internal BGP..........................................................................................................229.0The BGP decision algorithm..................................................................................2310.0As_path Attribute...................................................................................................2411.0Origin Attribute......................................................................................................2512.0BGP Nexthop Attribute..........................................................................................27
12.1BGP Nexthop (Multiaccess Networks)..............................................................................2912.2BGP Nexthop (NBMA).....................................................................................................3012.3Next-hop-self.....................................................................................................................31
13.0BGP Backdoor.......................................................................................................3214.0Synchronization.....................................................................................................34
14.1Disabling synchronization.................................................................................................35
15.0Weight Attribute.....................................................................................................3716.0Local Preference Attribute.....................................................................................3917.0Metric Attribute.....................................................................................................4118.0Community Attribute.............................................................................................4419.0BGP Filtering.........................................................................................................45
19.1Route Filtering...................................................................................................................4519.2Path Filtering......................................................................................................................4719.2.1AS-Regular Expression.......................................................................................4919.3BGP Community Filtering.................................................................................................50
20.0BGP Neighbors and Route maps...........................................................................53
20.1Use of set as-path prepend.................................................................................................5520.2BGP Peer Groups...............................................................................................................56
21.0CIDR and Aggregate Addresses............................................................................58
 
1/26/96-Rev: A1.2 Page 3Sam Halabi-cisco Systems
21.1Aggregate Commands........................................................................................................5921.2CIDR example 1................................................................................................................6121.3CIDR example 2 (as-set)....................................................................................................63
22.0BGP Confederation................................................................................................6523.0Route Reflectors.....................................................................................................68
23.1Multiple RRs within a cluster............................................................................................7123.2RR and conventional BGP speakers..................................................................................7323.3Avoiding looping of routing information...........................................................................74
24.0Route Flap Dampening..........................................................................................7525.0How BGP selects a Path........................................................................................7926.0Practical design example:......................................................................................80

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