as red meat and milk products and involvement of this sugar in the etiology of cancer, e.g. by theinduction of a chronic pro-oxidant immune response) [cf., BBC News 29 Sept 2003, “red meat cancer threat”; cf. also A. Varki, Yearbook. Phys. Anthropol., 2002, 44, 54-69; Glycoconjugate J., 2009, 26(3) 231-245; M. Hedlund et al., PNAS USA, 2008, 105 (48) 18936-18941] .Heparin, a drug which has been used for some seventy years was discovered many years ago tostimulate nuclear and chromatin transcription processes (S. Seki & T. Oda, Biochim..Biophys..Acta1977,479, 391; B.E. Coupar & C.J. Chesterton et al., Eur. J.Biochem., 1977, 79, 525-33 (this actionwas attributed to the interaction of this polyanion with the histones which removes DNA templaterestriction and allows RNA synthesis). Heparin signalling is representative of the larger high systemmanager system of animal biology afforded by heparan sulphates, a system of different polysaccharidemicrostructures which occur a linear alternating copolymer of glucosamine with iduronic/ glucuronicacid. This information storage and processing system, which is somewhat analogous to, but, of course,highly distinct from DNA, contains (heparin-like) signals which are known to be centrally implicatedin cellular control activities of putative central relevance to a fuller understanding of howenvironmental inputs which can promote or inhibit cancer. Indeed natural heparin-like moleculeswhich circulate in the bloodstream may provide a natural anti-cancer (and anti-other degenerativedisease) protection system (cf., H. Engleberg, Cancer (New York) 1999, 85, (23) 257-272 cf.,Circulation, 1961, 23, 573-577; D.L. Ornstein & L.R. Zacharski, Haemostasis, 1999, 29, 48-60. [Theamounts of these anti-cancer heparin like molecules are expected to vary with diet, and be higher witha high fruit and vegetable diet].Platinum and other inorganic elements which have been used for anti-cancer therapy also bind toheparin. (cf., D.Grant et al.,Biochem. Soc. Trans., 1996, 24 (2) 204S). Indeed natural heparin containsminute amounts of Pt and Ga. The anti-cancer effect of heparin may therefore derive at least in partfrom this phenomenon. Further studies are needed to probe this possibility.Glycosaminoglycans in general also exhibit antioxidant capacity being able to prevent DNAfragmentation under oxidative stress (cf. GM Campo et al., Free Rad. Res. 2004, 38 (6) 601-611.
Some other ‘diet & cancer’ studies
A study 884 of human subjects and controls by J Lin et al. of the University of Texas reported atthe101st annual meeting in 2010 of the American Association for Cancer Research.(cf., PressAssociation e.g. the Guardian 19 April 2010, p15) reported from that cooking meat or fish at hightemperatures increases the risk of cancer; this being attributed to the formation of heterocyclic aminecarcinogens under these cooking conditions. There was a 48% greater risk of bladder cancer betweenthe greatest and the least meat eaters in the survey. The occurrence of bladder cancer has also beentraditionally associated with occupational exposure to heterocylic amines. A survey of recent studiesof how such amines promote cancer is given by the National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet –“Heterocyclic amines in cooked meat” available at htttp://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/…/heterocyclic-aminesSir D. King et al., in a UK government study The Foresight Report written by 250 leading scientistshighlighted the danger to health of the global epidemic of obesity. 10% of all cancers in non-smokers is believed to be linked to obesity which is further believed to be related to diet.Obesity has also been linked to intoxication by globally distributed persistent organic pollutants (POPs)which become bio-concentrated in some fatty animal and some fish tissues as well as in some milk products.A vegetarian or vegan diet is commonly believed to be associated with a major decrease in cancer risk.This is well illustrated by historical comparisons between data from countries ranging between fullEastern and full Western-lifestyles cf. the graphics presented by William Harris M.D. in 1999 atwww.vegsource.com/harris/cancer_vegdiet.htm, which shows how the incidence of cancers can bestatistically associated with situations where meat and dairy food intake differ markedly. The