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The Federalist Papers
The Federalist Papers are a series of 85 essays written by
(29) between October, 1787 and August, 1788. The essays were originally publishedanonymously, under the pen name "
," and published primarily in two New York statenewspapers of the time: The
New York Packet
(January 11, 1755 or 1757 – July 12, 1804) was the first United States Secretaryof the Treasury, a Founding Father, economist, and political philosopher. As the aide-de-camp toGeneral George Washington during the American Revolutionary War, Hamilton was a leader of nationalist forces calling for a new Constitution; one of America's first Constitutional lawyers, andauthor of most of the Federalist Papers (51 of 85), a primary source for Constitutional interpretation.Hamilton was a federalist and the primary author of many of the policies supported by the FederalistParty.
(March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American politician and political philosopherwho served as the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817) and is considered one of theFounding Fathers of the United States.Madison was the principal author of the US Constitution, and is often called the "Father of theConstitution." In 1788, he wrote over a third of the Federalist Papers (29 of 85), an influentialcommentary on the Constitution. The first president to have served in the United States Congress, hewas a leader in the 1st United States Congress, drafting many basic laws, and was responsible for thefirst ten amendments to the Constitution (said to be based on the Virginia Declaration of Rights) andthus is also known as the "
Father of the Bill of Rights
." As a political theorist, Madison's mostdistinctive belief was that the new republic needed checks and balances to protect individual rights fromthe tyranny of the majority.As leader in the House of Representatives, Madison worked closely with President George Washingtonto organize the new federal government. Breaking with Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton in 1791,Madison and Thomas Jefferson organized what they called the Republican Party (later called theDemocratic-Republican Party) in opposition to key policies of the Federalists, especially the nationalbank and the Jay Treaty. He secretly co-authored, along with Thomas Jefferson, the Kentucky andVirginia Resolutions in 1798 to protest the four Alien and Sedition Acts (The Democratic-Republicans,like later historians, considered the Acts as being both unconstitutional and designed to stifle criticism of the then federalist administration, and as infringing on the right of the states to act in these areas).
(December 12, 1745 – May 17, 1829) was an American politician, statesman, revolutionary,diplomat, a Founding Father of the United States, President of the Continental Congress from 1778 to1779 and, from 1789 to 1795, the first Chief Justice of the United States. During and after the AmericanRevolution, he was a minister (ambassador) to Spain and France, helping to fashion United Statesforeign policy and to secure favorable peace terms from the British (the Jay Treaty) and French. He co-wrote the Federalist Papers with Alexander Hamilton and James Madison.