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Technology Management- Lecture Notes

Technology Management- Lecture Notes

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Published by: ramanrockstar21 on Jul 17, 2010
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06/28/2013

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MODULE 5Technology Management
 
Technology
An Introduction
The word ‘technology’ has a wider connotation and refers to the collectionof production possibilities, techniques, methods and processes by whichresources are actually transformed by humans to meet their wants. Ferré (1988)has defined technology as “practical implementations of intelligence”. However,Gendron (1977) has provided a more comprehensive definition:“A technology is any systematized practical knowledge, based onexperimentation and/or scientific theory, which is embodied in productiveskills, organization, or machinery”.The role of technology in fostering economic growth of nations andenhancing their industrial competitiveness has been widely recognized, throughits domineering influence over industrial productivity. Further, technology hasemerged as the most important resource that contributes directly to socio-economic development. Hence, technology is viewed from various perspectives:as an ‘engine for economic development’, as a ‘strategic resource’, and as a‘competitive weapon’. This necessitates effective management of technology - atboth national and firm levels. Technology Management (TM), which inter aliaaims at planning and developing the technological capabilities of an organizationor a nation, has now occupied the centre stage of decision-making.
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Gaynor (1989) has provided the following description of TM:“Managing technology is a method of operation that leverages humanresources, technology and other business assets by optimizing therelationships between the technology functions of the business enterprise. Itis the process of integrating science, engineering and managing withresearch, development and manufacturing in order to meet the operationalgoals of the business unit effectively, efficiently and economically. Itincludes managing the totality of the technology operations from conceptthrough commercialization”.TM embraces several interconnected issues such as: technology policy;technological forecasting and assessment; technology strategy; technologytransfer; technology-induced as well as market-oriented Research andDevelopment (R&D); process technology and product technology and theircontinuing improvement; human resource management in terms of innovativecapabilities, flexibility and contribution; and technology project management.Gaynor (1989) has provided the following description of TM:“Managing technology is a method of operation that leverages human resources,technology and other business assets by optimizing the relationships betweenthe technology functions of the business enterprise. It is the process ofintegrating science, engineering and managing with research, development andmanufacturing in order to meet the operational goals of the business uniteffectively, efficiently and economically. It includes managing the totality of thetechnology operations from concept through commercialization”.
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TM embraces several interconnected issues such as: technology policy;technological forecasting and assessment; technology strategy; technologytransfer; technology-induced as well as market-oriented Research andDevelopment (R&D); process technology and product technology and theircontinuing improvement; human resource management in terms of innovativecapabilities, flexibility and contribution; and technology project management.TM was set into motion when man invented the wheel, except that it wasnever practiced consciously. Now, TM has become what it never was before, anorganized and systematic discipline. As TM embraces several interconnectedissues ranging from policy planning at the national level to strategic planning at thefirm level, it calls for decisions and result-oriented actions at the macro-as well asmicro-levels and an effective macro-micro linkage.Macro technology management commonly refers to technology management at thenational level. It includes:
 
Planning for the development of technological capabilities at the national level.
 
Identification of key sectoral technology and related fields to be developed.
 
Determining ‘make’ or ‘buy’ decisions, i.e., whether importation or self- development is to be pursued.
 
Establishment of institutional mechanisms for directing and coordinating the development of national technological capabilities.
 
Design of policy measures for controls.
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