(especially the effect of colloids in seawater and associated dissolved gases which might impartnanobubble structures and confer long range water structuring effects).The multi-inorganic nature of geological and biological phenomena including the seawater range of inorganic elements.The overlap of geology, inorganic chemistry and biological chemistry suggested a new branch of science was required (“metallomics”).This might , it can be argued rationally centre around the effect of water structure.[(3) Haraguchi, 2004] included heparin (but apparently only in regard to its sulphur content) in histabulation of topics for which a suggested new science [dealing with the] should be potentiallyconsidered of fundamental importance to biochemistry since biological fluids were multi-inorganic ionsolutions which were approximately similar to seawater and other natural waters.]It might further be suggested that since heparan sulphate seems to have co-evolved with multicellualr animals in the sea some 10
years ago a primitive role of cell surface heparan sulphates was to act as anutrient gatherer and buffer for seawater-like multi inorganic element containing salt solutions.This notion seems to be confirmed by a report from the Dietrich group of the existence of an exactmathematical relationship [(4) Nader et al. 1983) between the amounts of tissue heparan sulphates (andother sulphated polysaccharides) and the salinities of the habitats of fifteen species of aquaticinvertebrates, where habitat water might be required to directly bathe the heparan -sulphate- proteoglycan-lined tissues.A more evolved system in vertebrates which use complex hormone and dedicated kidney water ionhomeostasis is that these organs seem to have the ability to respond to the presence of small ions whichmight adversely affect their tissues by up-regulating heparan sulphate anti-crystal activity (an activitywhich is probably dependent on water structure modulation) [kidney epithelial cells have been reportedto alter their incorporation of radiolabelled sulphate into heparan sulphate and chondroitin sulphate inresponse to oxalate as well aas Ca oxalate crystals which are inhibitable by these polysaccharides [(4a)Borges et al 2005]].Anionic polysaccharides (and proteins) in animals when bathed in the multi-inorganic ion salt solution biological fluids will generate multi-inorganic ion/hydration water complexes similar to the anionic polysaccharides abundantly present in the cell walls of marine algae had been established [(4b)Wassemann, 1949] most likely to exist in this form
rather than being present, as was originallysupposed, as free alginic acid.Although less chemically definable than the pure polyanionc polysaccharides (alginates, carrageenans,and the polysaccharide side-chains of glycosaminoglycans etc.) but nevertheless of considerableimportance to the homoeostasis of inorganic ions including carbonate, bicarbonate and Ca
ions innatural waters is the system of humic/fulvic polymers (a system of polymethylene, polycarbonyl,caboxylated) material which comprises the largest system of organic polymers on earth.
[Added later,cf e.g. DA Hansell et al “Dissolved Organic Matter in The Ocean”, Oceanography 2009 22(4) “at 662PgC marine dissolved organic matter contains as much carbon as the atmosphere and is one of the Earth’s major carbon reservoirs”
] These natural polyanions bind numerous metal ions present inseawater etc. via abundant -COO
groups, which apparently gave rise to the geological deposits of fulvate organic matter.Determination by spark source mass spectrometry (SSMS) of the multi-inorganic element contents of geological fulvates and marine alginate showed obvious qualitative similarities to the SSMS resultsfor the multi-element contents of the animal polysaccharide heparin [(5) Grant et al 1987].Less information is currently available from the literature of similar studies of heparan sulphates(which are more difficult to obtain in large amounts) but studies conducted in the context of scitigraphic imaging (e.g. of tumours) has indicated that this procedure may depend upon the bindingof the radio-nuclides to heparan sulphate proteoglycans e.g. at cell surfaces; side experimentsestablished that
Ca in heparan sulphate could be replaced by a range of multivalent metal counterionsin a manner consistent with heparan sulphate being normally present in vivo in the form of a multi-inorganic matrix (5a).The apparent differences in the observed biochemical/physical properties of different brands of heparinseems to at least in part have its origin in the different degrees of ‘purification’ achieved by differentmanufacturers (6). It might even be suggested that such attempts at purification actually achieve