considerableimprovementis shown in the textureof thepaperastimegoeson,andalsointheuse of thebeautifulyellowdyewhich ischaracteristicofthe Sui andearly T'angperiod.In thisconnectionI would call attentionto arecently publishedbookentitledPaper:An Historical Account(ShakespeareHeadPress,Oxford),inwhichtheauthor,Mr.R. H.Clapperton,givesa mostinteresting analysisofsomeofthe Steinpapers,based onphotomicrographs.
S.797. Recto:AVinayatext,*Pratimoksa of theSarvastivadin,which does notexactly agreewithanyin thepresentCanon.There is aninterestingcolophon(seePlateVII):-;?
X iAs0k E a)?fiA
"Atthehsiihour of the 5thdayof the 12thmoonofthei-ssuyear,the first oftheregnalperiodChien-ch'u[i.e.between7and 9p.m.on10thJanuary,406],thebhikshuTe-yu,who receivedthefulldisciplinaryvows from the monk(upadhydya)Fa-hsing,the masterofdisciplinePao-hui,and the master ofdoctrineHui-ying,southof thecityofTunhuang,andsubsequentlywent intoretreatduringthe summer with hiscompanionsin theceremony,Tao-fu,Hui-yii,andothers,twelve inall,has written out the com-mandmentsfor recitationas far as'thecompletionofdestiny',merely copyingthe characters.The clumsiness of his hand causeshimshame,andheadds this noteinthehopethat readersmayonlymeditateon the senseand forbeartolaughat thehandwriting."In 406Tunhuangformedpartoftheshort-livedWesternLiangStateunder LiKao,of which until thepreviousyearit had been thecapital.Thecolophonproperisprecededbya31orformulato be recited at theceremonyof"receivingthecommandments",and followedbydirectionsastothe division of thetext forpurposesof recitation. The exactmeaningof
j;_ jftiis not clearto me.Verso:Atext,alsoimperfectatthebeginning,which consistsofdiscoursesbyBuddhashowinghowsuch andsuchpreceptsof theVinayacame to bemade. It resembles[I
Ssifeniitsang(N.1117),which wastranslatedin405. Anoteatthe end showsthatthecopywas madebythesamescribe,Te-yu.810