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Herbert Marcuse Father of the New Left CIA Agent and Angela Davis's Mentor

Herbert Marcuse Father of the New Left CIA Agent and Angela Davis's Mentor

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Herbert Marcuse
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Herbert Marcuse
German pronunciation:
]) (July 19, 1898
July 29, 1979) was aGerman philosopher,sociologist, andpolitical theorist, associated with theFrankfurt Schoolof
Herbert Marcuse
Full name
Herbert Marcuse
July 19, 1898Berlin,Germany
July 29, 1979 (aged 81)
 Starnberg,Germany  Stroke
20th century philosophy
Western Philosophy
Frankfurt School,critical theory
Social theory,Marxism
totally administered society,technological rationality, the GreatRefusal,New Reality Principle,libidinal Work Relations, work asfree Play,repressive toleranceMachiavelli,Rousseau,Hobbes,Kant,Hegel, Kierkegaard,Marx,Nietzsche,Freud,Husserl, Heidegger,
,Friedrich Schiller Norman O. Brown,Angela Davis,Andrew Feenberg,
Jürgen Habermas
,Abbie Hoffman,Gad Horowitz,Douglas Kellner,William Leiss, Henri Lefebvre,Bob Black 
Part ofa serieson the
Frankfurt School 
Major works
Reason and Revolution 
Dialectic of Enlightenment 
Minima Moralia 
Eros and Civilization 
One-Dimensional Man 
Negative Dialectics 
The Theory of Communicative Action 
Notable theorists
Max Horkheimer
 Theodor Adorno 
Herbert Marcuse
 Walter Benjamin Erich Fromm
 Friedrich Pollock 
Leo Löwenthal
Jürgen Habermas
Important concepts
critical theory. Celebrated as the "Father of theNew Left,
" his best known works are
Eros and Civilization 
One-Dimensional Man 
The Aesthetic Dimension 
Early life
Herbert Marcuse was born inBerlinto Carl Marcuse and Gertrud Kreslawsky and raised in aJewishfamily. In 1916 he was drafted into theGerman Army, but only worked in horse stables in Berlin duringWorld War I. He then became a member of a Soldiers' Council that participated in theabortedsocialist Spartacist uprising. He completed his Ph.D. thesis at theUniversity of Freiburgin 1922 on the German
after which he moved back to Berlin, where he worked inpublishing. In 1924 he married Sophie Wertheim, a mathematician. He returned toFreiburgin 1928to study withEdmund Husserland write aHabilitationwithMartin Heidegger, which was published in 1932 as
Hegel's Ontology and Theory of Historicity.
This study was written in the context of theHegel renaissance that was taking place in Europe with an emphasis on Hegel's ontology of lifeand history, idealist theory of spirit and dialectic.
With his academic career blocked by the riseof theThird Reich, in 1933 Marcuse joined theFrankfurt Institute for Social Research.
 1 Early life 2 U.S.A. 3 The New Left and radical politics4 Marriage and death 5 Marcuse and capitalism 6 Notable works 7 Bibliography 8 See also 9 Further reading 10 References 11 External links 
[edit]In 1933, Marcuse published his first major review, of Marx's
Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844.
In this review, Marcuse revised the interpretation of Marxism, from thestandpoint of the works of the early Marx. This review helped the world see that Marcuse wasbecoming one of the most promising theorists of his generation.
 While a member of the Institute of Societal Research, Marcuse developed a model for criticalsocial theory, created a theory of the new stage of state and monopoly capitalism, described therelationships between philosophy, social theory, and cultural criticism, and provided an analysisand critique of German fascism. Marcuse worked closely with critical theorists while at the Institute.
After emigrating from Germany in 1933, in 1934, Marcuse immigrated to the United States, where hebecame a citizen in 1940. Although he never returned to Germany to live, he remained one of the majortheorists associated with the Frankfurt School, along withMax HorkheimerandTheodor W. Adorno  (among others). In 1940 he published
Reason and Revolution 
, a dialectical work studyingGeorg W. F.HegelandKarl Marx. During World War II Marcuse first worked for theU.S. Office of War Information(OWI) on anti-Nazipropaganda projects. In 1943 he transferred to theOffice of Strategic Services(OSS), the precursor totheCentral Intelligence Agency. His work for the OSS involved research on Nazi Germany anddenazification. After the dissolution of the OSS in 1945, Marcuse was employed by theUS Departmentof Stateas head of the Central European section, retiring after the death of his first wife in 1951.In 1952 he began a teaching career as a political theorist, first atColumbia University, then atHarvard University, then atBrandeis Universityfrom 1958 to 1965, where he taught philosophy and politics, and finally (by then he was past the usual retirement age), at theUniversity of California, San Diego. He wasa friend and collaborator of the political sociologistBarrington Moore, Jr.and of the political philosopherRobert Paul Wolff, and also a friend of the Columbia University sociology professorC. Wright Mills, one of the founders of theNew Leftmovement.In the post-war period, Marcuse was the most explicitly political and left-wing member of the FrankfurtSchool
citation needed 
, continuing to identify himself as aMarxist, a socialist, and aHegelian.  [edit]Marcuse's critiques ofcapitalistsociety (especially his 1955 synthesis of Marx andFreud,
Eros and Civilization 
, and his 1964 book
One-Dimensional Man 
) resonated with the concerns of the studentmovement in the 1960s. Because of his willingness to speak at student protests, Marcuse soon becameknown as "the father of theNew Leftin the United States", a term he strongly disliked and disavowed.His work heavily influenced intellectual discourse onpopular cultureand scholarlypopular culture studies. He had many speaking engagements in the US and Europe in the late 1960s and 1970s. He
Influenced byInfluenced
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became a close friend and inspirer of the French philosopher
André Gorz
.Marcuse defended the arrested East German dissidentRudolf Bahro(author of
Die Alternative: Zur Kritik des real existierenden Sozialismus 
The Alternative in Eastern Europe 
]), discussing in a 1979essay Bahro's theories of "change from within"[1].
The New Left and radical politics
Many radical scholars and activists were influenced by Marcuse, such asAngela Davis
,AbbieHoffman,Rudi Dutschke, andRobert M. Young. (See the List of Scholars and Activists link, below.) Among those who critiqued him from the left wereMarxist-humanist Raya Dunayevskaya, and fellow German emigrePaul Mattick, both of whom subjected
One-Dimensional Man 
to aMarxist critique. Marcuse's 1965 essay "Repressive Tolerance", in which he claimed capitalistdemocraciescan havetotalitarianaspects, has been criticized by conservatives.[2]Marcuse argues that genuine tolerance does not tolerate support for repression, since doing so ensuresthat marginalized voices will remain unheard. He characterizes tolerance of repressive speech as "inauthentic." Instead, he advocates adiscriminatory form of tolerance that does not allow so-called "repressive" intolerance to be voiced. Marcuse later expressed his radical ideasthrough three pieces of writing. He wrote
An Essay on Liberation 
in 1969 celebrating liberation movements such as those inVietnam, whichinspired many radicals. In 1972 he wrote
Counterrevolution and Revolt 
, which argues that the hopes of the 1960's were facing a counterrevolutionfrom the right.
 After Brandeis denied the renewal of his teaching contract in 1965, Marcuse devoted the rest of his life to teaching, writing and giving lecturesaround the world. His efforts brought him attention from the media, making his work more influential. He continued to promote Marxian Theoryand progressive socialism, with some of his students helping to spread his ideas. He published his final work
The Aesthetic Dimension 
in 1979on the role of high art in the process of emancipation from bourgeois society.
Marriage and death
Marcuse married three times. His first wife wasmathematicianSophie Wertman (1901
1951), withwhom he had a son, Peter (born 1928). Herbert's second marriage was to Inge Neumann (1910
1972), the widow of his close friendFranz Neumann(1900
1954). His third wife was Erica Sherover(1938
1988), a former graduate student and forty years his junior, whom he married in 1976. His sonPeter Marcuse is currently professor emeritus ofUrban PlanningatColumbia University. His granddaughter is the novelistIrene Marcuseand his grandson,Harold Marcuse, is currently a professor of history at theUniversity of California, Santa Barbara.Ten days after his eighty-first birthday, Marcuse died on July 29, 1979, after having suffered a strokeduring a visit to Germany. He had spoken at the Frankfurt
, and was on his wayto the Max-Planck-Institute for the Study of the Scientific-Technical World in Starnberg, on invitationfrom second-generation Frankfurt School theorist
Jürgen Habermas
. In 2003, after his ashes wererediscovered in the USA, he was buried in the
Dorotheenstädtischer cemetery
, Berlin.
Marcuse and capitalism
s analysis of capitalism derives partially from one of Karl Marx
s main concepts:Objectification.
, which under capitalism becomes Alienation. Marx believed that capitalism wasexploiting humans; that the objects produced by laborers became alienated and thus ultimatelydehumanized them to functional objects. Marcuse took this belief and expanded it. He argued thatcapitalism and industrialization pushed laborers so hard that they began to see themselves asextensions of the objects they were producing. At the beginning of
One-Dimensional Man 
The people recognize themselves in their commodities; they find their soul in theirautomobile, hi-fi set, split-level home, kitchen equipment,
meaning that under capitalism (inconsumer society) humans become extensions of the commodities that they create, thus makingcommodities extensions of people's minds and bodies and calling into question the notion ofalienation.
Notable works
Reason and Revolution 
(1941) Presents the Hegelian Perspective along with a critique of Marxism and positivist philosophy.
Eros and Civilization 
(1955) The use of Freud's ideas on life and death to critique how modern culture changes and isolates desire.
One-Dimensional Man 
(1964) Marcuse's concerns about modern capitalism restricting the possibility of opposition.
He believed that theindustrialization was creating a one-dimensional way of thought and behavior which decreased opposition towards capitalism.
The Struggle Against Liberalism in the Totalitarian View of the State 
Reason and Revolution 
Eros and Civilization 
Soviet Marxism: A Critical Analysis 
One-Dimensional Man 
Repressive Tolerance 
An Essay on Liberation 
Counter-Revolution and Revolt 
Studies in Critical Philosophy 
On the Problem of the Dialectic
27 (Spring 1976). New York: Telos Press.
The Aesthetic Dimension 
See also
Neo-Marxism [edit][edit]
Grave in the
cemetery, Berlin, where Marcuse's asheswere buried in 2003.
Sardu Sloven
ina Sloven
 / Srpski Srpskohrvatski / 
 Suomi Svenska 
ng Vi

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