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Physics Formulas and Concepts

# Physics Formulas and Concepts

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This short notes covers all the topics.It has important formulas and brief explanation of important terms.Very useful for quick revision of the topic.

Provided by: http://www.loookinto.co.cc/
This short notes covers all the topics.It has important formulas and brief explanation of important terms.Very useful for quick revision of the topic.

Provided by: http://www.loookinto.co.cc/

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07/24/2013

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1Formulas and Concepts
Physics pocket diary of concepts and formulas

www.loookinto.co.cc

2Formulas and Concepts
Kinematics
Note: -
Bold letter are used to denote vector quantity
i
,
j
,
z
are the unit vector along x,y and z axis
Quick review of Kinematics formulas
S.No. Type of MotionFormula
1

Motion in onedimensionr
=x
i

v
=(dx/dt)
i

a
=d
v
/dt=(d
2
x/dt
2
)
i
and
a
=
v
d
v
/d
r

v
=
u
+
a
t
s
=
u
t+1/2
a
t
2

v
2
=
u
2
+2
as
In integral form
r
=∫
v
dt
v
=∫
a
dt
2Motion in twodimensionr
=x
i
+y
j

v
=d
r
/dt=(dx/dt)
i
+ (dy/dt)
j

a
=d
v
/dt=(d
2
x/dt
2
)
i
+(d
2
x/dt
2
)
j
and
a
=
v
d
v
/d
r
Constant accelerated equation same as above
3Motion in threedimensionr
=x
i
+y
j
+z
k

v
=d
r
/dt=(dx/dt)
i
+ (dy/dt)
j
+(dz/dt)
k

a
=d
v
/dt=(d
2
x/dt
2
)
i
+(d
2
x/dt
2
)
j
+(d
2
x/dt
2
)
ka
=
v
d
v
/d
r
Constant accelerated equation same as above
4Projectile Motion
x=(v
0
cosθ
0
)ty=(v
0
sinθ
0
)t-gt
2
/2v
x
=

v
0
cosθ
0
and v
y
=

v
0
sinθ
0
t-gt , where θ
0
is the angle initialvelocity makes with the positive x axis.
5Uniform circularmotion
a=v
2
/R , where a is centripetal acceleration whose directionof is always along radius of the circle towards the centre anda=4π
2
R/T
2
acceleration in uniform circular motion in termsof time period T
Concept of relative velocity
For two objects A and B moving with the uniform velocities
V
A
and
V
B
.
Relative velocity is defined as
V
BA
=
V
B
-
V
A
where
V
BA
is relative velocity of B relative to ASimilarly relative velocity of A relative to B
V
AB
=
V
A
-
V
B
Special cases: -

S.No. Case Description1 For straight linemotion
If the objects are moving in the same direction, relative velocity can beget by subtracting other. If they are moving in oppositedirection ,relative velocity will be get by adding the velocities examplelike train problems
2 For two dimensionsmotion
if
v
a
=v
xa
i
+ v
ya
j

v
b
=v
xb
i
+ v
yb
j

Relative velocity of B relative to A=v
xb
i
+ v
yb
j
-(v
xa
i
+ v
ya
j
)=
i
(v
xb
-v
xa
) +
j
(v
yb
-v
ya
)
3 For threedimensions motion

v
a
=v
xa
i
+ v
ya
j
+v
za
z

v
b
=v
xb
i
+ v
yb
j
+ v
zb
z
Relative velocity of B relative to A=v
xb
i
+ v
yb
j
+ v
zb
z
-(v
xa
i
+ v
ya
j
+v
za
z
)=

i
(v
xb
-v
xa
) +
j
(v
yb
-v
ya
)+
z
(v
yb
-v
ya
)
Free fall acceleration
S.No. Point1
Freely falling motion of any body under the effect of gravity is an example of uniformlyaccelerated motion.
2
Kinematics equation of motion under gravity can be obtained by replacing acceleration
'a'
inequations of motion by acceleration due to gravity
'g'
.
3
Thus kinematics equations of motion under gravity arev = v
0
+ gt , x = v
0
t + ½ ( gt
2
) and v
2
= (v
0
)
2
+ 2gx
4
Value of g is equal to 9.8 m.s
-2
.The value of g is taken positive when the body falls verticallydownwards and negative when the body is projected up against gravity.
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3Formulas and Concepts
Laws of motion

S.No. Term Description1 Newton's first law of motion
'A body continues to be in state of rest or uniform motion unless itis acted upon by some external force to act otherwise'
2 Newton's second lawof motion
'Rate of change of momentum of a body is proportional to theapplied force and takes place in the direction of action of forceapplied Mathematically,
F
= d
p
/dt =m
a
where,
p
=m
v
, momentum of the body
a
=acceleration
3 Impulse
Impulse is the product of force and time which is equal to thechange in momentumImpulse =
F
∆t =∆
p4 Newton's third lawof motion
'To every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction'
F
AB
=-
F
BA

5 Law of conservationof linear momentum
Initial momentum = final momentumm
1
v
1+m
2
v
2=m
1
v
1
'
+m
2
v
2
'
For equilibrium of a body
F
1
+
F
2
+
F
3
=0
Some points to note

S.No. Point1
An accelerated frame is called non inertial frame while an non accelerated frame is calledinertial frame
2
Newton first law are valid in inertial frame only
3
Apparent weight of a body in the liftGoing Upward with acceleration aW=m(g + a)Going Down with acceleration aW=m(g-a)
4
Always draw free body diagram to solve the force related problems
Friction and Frame of reference
S.No. Term Description1 Friction
Frictional force acts between the bodies whenever there is a relativemotion between them. When bodies slip, frictional force is called staticfrictional force and when the bodies do not slip, it is called kineticfrictional force.
2 KineticFrictional force
When bodies slip over each otherf=µ
K
NWhere N is the normal contact force between the surface and µ
k
is thecoefficient of kinetic Friction. Direction of frictional force is such thatrelative slipping is opposed by the friction
3 Static Frictionalforce
Frictional force can also act even if there is no relative motion. Suchforce is called static Frictional force. Maximum Static friction that a bodycan exert on other body in contact with it is called limiting Friction.
max
s
N WhereN is the normal contact force between the surfaceAnd µ
s
is the coefficient of static Friction
max
is the maximum possible force of static Friction. Note that µ
s
> µ
k
and Angle of friction tanλ=µ
s

4 Inertial FrameOf reference
Inertial frame of references is those attached to objects which are at restor moving at constant Velocity. Newton’s law are valid in inertial frame of reference. Example person standing in a train moving at constantvelocity.
5 Non InertialFrame Of reference
Inertial frame of references is attached to accelerated objects forexample: A person standing in a train moving with increasing speed.Newton’s law are not valid.To apply Newton’s law ,pseudo force has to be introduced in the equationwhose value will be F=-ma
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