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Gandhara Art

Gandhara Art

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Published by Varnika Tiwari

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Published by: Varnika Tiwari on Jul 18, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/05/2013

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Gandhara
 
Art
 
Gandhara
 
is
 
the
 
name
 
of 
 
an
 
ancient
 
province
 
and
 
kingdom,
 
which
 
in
 
classical
 
times,
 
was
 
limited
 
to
 
a
 
small
 
region
 
in
 
ancient
 
India.
 
The
 
province
 
Gandhara
 
included
 
roughly
 
northwestern
 
India
 
between
 
the
 
Khyber
 
Pass
 
and
 
the
 
Indus
 
River
 
and
 
the
 
region
 
of 
 
the
 
Kabul
 
Valley
 
in
 
Afghanistan.
 
Under
 
the
 
Maurya
 
Dynasty,
 
the
 
Gandhara
 
province
 
became
 
the
 
object
 
of 
 
intense
 
missionary
 
activity
 
by
 
the
 
Buddhist
 
emperor
 
Asoka
 
(reigned
 
c.
 
273
232
 
BCE).
 
Gandhara
 
art
 
is
 
often
 
referred
 
to
 
as
 
the
 
Graeco
or
Roman
Buddhist
 
school.
 
The
 
founder
 
of 
 
the
 
School
 
has
 
been
 
credited
 
to
 
the
 
Kushan
 
Emperor
 
Kanishka
 
(c.
 
AD
 
129
160),
 
because
 
of 
 
his
 
patronage
 
to
 
Buddhism,
 
and
 
his
 
great
 
artistic
 
development.
 
The
 
character
 
of 
 
Gandharan
 
art
 
is
 
determined
 
by
 
the
 
commercial
 
relations
 
between
 
the
 
Kushan
 
and
 
the
 
Roman
 
empires.
 
The
 
many
 
archaeological
 
discoveries
 
of 
 
Alexandrian
 
and
 
Syrian
 
workmanship
 
at
 
Taxila
 
in
 
the
 
Punjab
 
and
 
Begram
 
in
 
the
 
Kabul
 
valley
 
testify
 
to
 
the
 
cultural
 
and
 
diplomatic
 
connections
 
with
 
the
 
Graeco
Roman
 
West.
 
Although
 
the
 
presence
 
of 
 
this
 
material
 
provides
 
a
 
Hellenistic
 
back
 
ground
 
for
 
Gandhara
 
art
.
 
The
 
Gandhara
 
school
 
incorporated
 
many
 
motifs
 
and
 
techniques
 
from
 
classical
 
Roman
 
art,
 
including
 
vine
 
scrolls,
 
cherubs
 
bearing
 
garlands,
 
tritons,
 
and
 
centaurs.
 
The
 
basic
 
iconography,
 
however,
 
remained
 
Indian.
 
The
 
materials
 
used
 
for
 
Gandhara
 
sculpture
 
were
 
green
 
phyllite
 
and
 
gray
blue
 
mica
 
schist,
 
which,
 
in
 
general,
 
belong
 
to
 
an
 
earlier
 
phase,
 
and
 
stucco,
 
which
 
was
 
used
 
increasingly
 
after
 
the
 
3rd
 
century
 
A.D.
 
School
 
of 
 
Gandhara
 
independently
 
evolved
 
its
 
own
 
characteristic
 
depiction
 
of 
 
the
 
Buddha
 
about
 
the
 
1st
 
century
 
AD.
 
The
 
sculptures
 
were
 
originally
 
painted
 
and
 
gilded.
 
The
 
Gandhara
 
school
 
drew
 
upon
 
the
 
anthropomorphic
 
traditions
 
of 
 
Roman
 
religion
 
and
 
represented
 
the
 
Buddha
 
with
 
a
 
youthful
 
Apollo
like
 
face,
 
dressed
 
in
 
garments
 
resembling
 
those
 
seen
 
on
 
Roman
 
imperial
 
statues.
 
The
 
Gandhara
 
depiction
 
of 
 
the
 
seated
 
Buddha
 
was
 
less
 
successful.
 
The
 
subject
 
matter
 
of 
 
Gandhara
 
art
 
was
 
unquestionably
 
Buddhist,
 
while
 
most
 
motifs
 
were
 
of 
 
western
 
Asiatic
 
or
 
Hellenistic
 
origin.
 
The
 
inspiration
 
of 
 
Gandhara
 
art
 
was
 
primarily
 
Buddhism
 
and
 
its
 
creators
 
were
 
mostly
 
Indians
 
although
 
it
 
was
 
influenced
 
by
 
foreign
 
art.
 
Kramish
 
writes
 
 
Gandhara
 
occupies
 
a
 
position
 
apart.
 
For
 
it
 
is
 
Indian
 
and
 
colonial
 
from
 
a
 
Hellenistic
 
point
 
of 
 
view,
 
it
 
is
 
Hellenistic
 
and
 
colonial
 
when
 
view
e
d
 
ro
m
 
India.”
 
The
 
most
 
frequently
 
used
 
material
 
by
 
Gandhara
 
artists
 
was
 
a
 
soft
 
indigenous
 
schist
 
that
 
varied
 
in
 
colour
 
from
 
light
 
to
 
dark
 
gray,
 
and
 
often
 
contained
 
sparkling
 
mica
 
particles.
 
Many
 
of 
 
these
 
statues
 
were
 
covered
 
with
 
gold
 
leaf 
 
to
 
give
 
them
 
a
 
luster
 
in
 
dark
 
interiors.
 
The
 
most
 
popular
 
media,
 
however,
 
became
 
an
 
easy
to
work
 
material
 
terracotta
 
and
 
stucco.
 

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