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Sambahsa Grammar

Sambahsa Grammar

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Published by cafaristeir
This is the complete grammar in English of the international auxiliary language Sambahsa-Mundialect.
For more information: http://sambahsa.pbworks.com/
This is the complete grammar in English of the international auxiliary language Sambahsa-Mundialect.
For more information: http://sambahsa.pbworks.com/

More info:

categoriesTypes, Research
Published by: cafaristeir on Jul 18, 2010
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved


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by Olivier SIMONEdited by Stephen L. RICE
edition : May 2012 
© Dr. Olivier Simon
CONTENTSForeword1 – Sambahsa Pronunciation1-1 Preliminary definitions1-2 Other conventions1. Most complicated cases2. Vowels3. Semi-vowels4. Consonants1-3 Final remarks1-4 Accentuation in Sambahsa2 – Declension in Sambahsa2-1 Plural2-2 Declension cases3 – Sambahsa conjugation3–1 Present tense and derived tenses3-1-1 Infinitive3-1-2 Present active participle3-1-3 Past active participle and infinitive3-1-4 Imperative3-1-5 Future3-1-6 Conditional3-1-7 Near future3-2 Past tense and derived tenses3-2-1 Passive participle3-2-2 Use of the passive participle3-3 Verbal affixes3-4 Some literary verbal forms3-5 Sambahsa conjugated verbs4 – Sambahsa Words4-1 Adjectives4-2 Adverbs4-3 Correlatives4-4 Some common invariable words in Sambahsa4-5 Most common prepositions in Sambahsa4-6 Numbers4-7 Expressing the time in Sambahsa4-8 Some useful verbs in Sambahsa4-9 Syntax5 – Word formation in Sambahsa5-1 Prefixes5-2 Suffixes5-3 Formation of compounds5-4 Choice of new words 
© Dr. Olivier Simon
By Dave MacLeodSambahsa is without a doubt the most interesting auxiliary language to haveemerged over the past decade. To sum it up in a few short sentences one wouldhave to describe it as a type of regularized Indo-European with borrowings from other language families, but this alone doesn’t quite do it justice. To explain what makesSambahsa unique, one needs to take a quick look at other international auxiliarylanguage projects that have been popular over the past century and a bit. Since they first became popular in the late 19
century, auxiliary languages haveplaced simplicity above all else. Volapük was based on a simple grammar, Esperantowas based on a simple regular grammar with 16 primary rules that could be learnedin a short time, and just about every project after this has been ridiculously easy tolearn, at least compared to so-called “natural” languages with their vast exceptionsand intricacies. Esperanto has been fairly popular but still likely only has adherentsnumbering in the hundreds of thousands, and no other can claim more than a fewthousand. Auxiliary languages clearly have not yet aroused the interest of thepopulation as a whole.  At the same time, since the 19
century a language has gone from a speakingpopulation of zero to some seven million: Hebrew, once a liturgical language, sincereconstructed and modernized and now a living language. The new state of Israel atits inception could easily have gone with one of many international auxiliarylanguages and yet went with a language that was not created to be easy, a languageappealed to people for its spirit and heritage, and not its simplicity or internationalcharacter. Along with the revival and strengthening of such languages as Cornish,Welsh, Basque and others, and the sudden flood of adherents to the Na’vi language(a language without even a published grammar and dictionary) after the release of the movie
, it would seem that people are willing to take the time to learn alanguage in spite of any outward difficulty if they find something fulfilling in it,something viscerally pleasing. This perhaps may be what sets Sambahsa apart from other auxiliary languagesproposed over the past decades. Yes, its Indo-European character and internationalvocabulary is one selling point, but what sets it apart in particular is that it simplydoesn’t feel like a constructed language. It is terse, it has an orthography that (whileactually perfectly regular) is quite complex, and is very precise. Personally I havealways imagined Sambahsa to be an example of a language that could have existedsomewhere around present-day Armenia, where a kingdom using a descendant of Proto-Indo-European using it has been influenced over the centuries by its Persian,Turkish and Arab neighbors, as well as various countries from the east. At times itfeels a bit like Bulgarian, at other times like Persian, and sometimes similar toGerman as well. What other auxiliary language would dare to include the ablaut in itsverbs? In contrast to auxiliary languages that find similarity to living languages invocabulary alone, the structure itself of Sambahsa feels like a living language.  At the same time, however, Sambahsa is not all that difficult to learn. Theorthography is regular, every verb except for three are also regular, pronouns aresimple and easy to understand, grammatical cases exist but are not haphazard as
© Dr. Olivier Simon

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