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Bio I Chapter 1 Themes of Life Final Final

Bio I Chapter 1 Themes of Life Final Final

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Published by: Sundar Nathan on Jul 18, 2010
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Copyright Crush That Test, LLC. 2009
Introductory Biology IChapter 1: Exploring Life1. Question: What is biology?Answer: The word
means, "the science of life", from the Greek 
, and
Therefore, Biology is the science of Living Things. That is why Biology issometimes known as Life Science.2. Question: what is evolution?Answer:
is the process of change in all forms of life over generations, andevolutionary biology is the study of how evolution occurs. An organism inherits features (called
) from its parents through genes. Changes (called mutations) in these genes can produce anew trait in the offspring of an organism. In biology,
is the process of change in theinherited traits of a population of organisms from one generation to the next.3. Question: What is a living thing?Answer: All living things are composed of 
matter structured in an orderly way
where simplemolecules are ordered together into much larger macromolecules.An easy way to remember this is the acronym GRIMNER CAll organisms; -
ove, Need
xcrete (Waste),
ells (Made of)4. Question: What are some characteristics of living things?Answer:
Living things are
meaning they are able to
respond to stimuli.
Living things are able to
, and
All known living things use the
hereditary molecule,
Internal functions are coordinated and
so that the internal environment of aliving thing is relatively constant. This is referred to as homeostasis
4. Question: Define the levels of biological organization from molecules to the biosphere.a.Living things are organized in the microscopic level from atoms up to cells. b.Atoms are arranged into molecules
Copyright Crush That Test, LLC. 2009
Copyright Crush That Test, LLC. 2009c.
Molecules into macromoleculesd.Macromolecules make up organellese.Organelles work together to form cells.f.Beyond this, cells are organized in higher levels to form entire multicellular organisms.g.Cells together form tissuesh.Tissues make up organsi.Organs are part of organ systems j.Organ Systems work together to form an entire organism. Beyond this, organisms form populations Populations make up parts of an ecosystem.
All of the earth's ecosystems together form the diverse environment that is the earth.5. Question: provide an example for each level of biological organization from molecules to the biosphereAnswer:a.Sub-atomic particles like neutrons and protons make up atoms of elements, like hydrogen b.Hydrogen atoms make up molecules of the phospholipid membrane of mitochondriac.Mitochondria are present in large quantities in cardiac muscle cellsd.Cardiac muscle tissue is made from cardiac muscle cellse.Cardiac tissue makes up the human heart, an organf.The human heart is part of the circulatory system, a key organ system in the human bodyg.The circulatory system is one of many that makes up the human body6. Question: What are emergent properties?Answer: An emergent property is a property which a collection or complex system has, butwhich the individual members do not have. It's the property where living things become moreand more complex as they go from the cellular level (cardiac cells) to the organ system level(circulatory system).Emergent properties are based on the concept that "the whole is greater than the composition of its parts." For example, the heart is made of cardiac cells, but if we were to just have heart cells,
Copyright Crush That Test, LLC. 2009
Copyright Crush That Test, LLC. 2009
they won't do anything. However, if we have the whole heart, it will perform the function of  pumping blood.7. Question: Define reductionism.Answer:
tries to understand the nature of complex things by reducing them to theinteractions between their different parts. For example, in the sciences, most aspects of chemistryare based on physics, and similarly many aspects of microbiology are based on chemistry. This isreductionism.8. Question: What are the limitations of Reductionism in the study of biology?Answer: Emergent properties expose the limitations of Reductionism. For example, memory andconsciousness can be emergent properties of the brain. However, when a person dies, their consciousness and memory are extinguished. Their brain is intact; Reductionism cannot explainthis phenomenon.9. Question: What is systems biology?Answer: S
ystems biology
is a biology-based inter-disciplinary study field that focuses on thesystematic study of complex interactions in biological systems, thus using a new perspective(integration) instead of Reductionism, to study these complex interactions.9. Question: What is Science?
Copyright Crush That Test, LLC. 2009

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