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What is Water Harvesting

What is Water Harvesting

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Published by Ecology Action

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Published by: Ecology Action on Jul 19, 2010
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10/25/2012

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    C    i   t   y   o    f    S   e   a   t   t    l   e    D   e   p   a   r   t   m   e   n   t   o    f    P    l   a   n   n    i   n   g    &    D   e   v   e    l   o   p   m   e   n   t
Rainwater harvesting 
is the capture and storage o rainwater and isconsidered the cleanest orm o harvested water.
Greywater harvesting 
is the capture and storage o water that hasalready been used or non-sewage purposes-rom baths and showersto washing machines, sinks, and vehicle washing run-o.
Reclaimed water
is greywater that has been treated or waterquality. Reuse o reclaimed water triggers signicantly more coderequirements and design regulations than reuse o rainwater.
Potable water
is clean water-satisactory or drinking, culinary,and domestic purposes, and meets the drinking water standardsestablished by the Washington State Department o Health.
Drillwater harvesting 
is the capture and storage o water roma potable source that was used or re department drills. Whiledrill water is not considered rainwater it can be treated in a similarmanner i it is collected rom suraces with similar pollutant concerns.
What is WaterHarvesting?
    T   e   c    h   n    i   c   a    l    B   r    i   e    f
Water harvesting is the capture and storage o water orbenefcial reuse. It can be accomplished anywhere a watersupply is available or collection-and a water source is desiredor required. To understand the process ully, it is important tounderstand water harvesting terms.
Fire Station Rainwater and GreywaterHarvesting or Benefcial Reuse
 The Beckoning Hand RainwaterCistern on Vine Street, Seattle,WA. Image courtesy o MayyEngineering and Design.
www.seattle.gov/dpd/greenbuilding 
 
city green building 
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What are the goals and beneits o water harvesting?
Water harvesting provides a host o designbenets such as reducing the demandon city potable water systems, city sewerinrastructure, and stormwater detentionsystems. Additionally, rainwater collectionin combined sewer neighborhoods canreduce the amount o pollutants releasedinto lakes, streams, and other water bodiesduring combined sewer overows.Perhaps the most obvious benet to waterharvesting, however, is reduced utility ratesor building owners. While today’s rates arestill considered low, water rates in the Cityo Seattle have been rising at an averagerate o 10.5% a year over the last 16 years.City o Seattle Sanitary Sewer rates havebeen rising an average o 7.5% a year overthe last 15 years. The City o Seattle basessanitary sewer rates on water usage, unlessan irrigation deduction meter is installed. The graph to the let shows that or every100 cubic oot (one c is equal to 748gallons) o potable water saved per year, theten-year payback will be over $125. Extendthis period to 25 years-a typical liecycleanalysis period-and or every 100 c o potable water saved, per year, accumulatedsavings is shown to be over $500.
LEED Beneits or Water Harvesting!
Accumulated utility ratesaving gure courtesy o Mayy Engineering andDesign, January 2007.
 The City o Seattle calls or all new City-unded projects and renovations withover 5,000 square eet o occupied space to achieve a LEED Silver rating. Waterharvesting can contribute towards the ollowing LEED credits:
n
Sustainable Sites Credit 6.1 Stormwater Design: Quantity Control
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Water Efciency Credit 1.1 Water Efcient Landscaping: Reduce by 50%
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Water Efciency Credit 1.2 Water Efcient Landscaping: No Potable Water Useor No Irrigation
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Water Efciency Credit 2.0 Innovative Wastewater Technologies
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Water Efciency Credit 3.1 Water Use Reduction: 20% Reduction
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Water Efciency Credit 3.1 Water Use Reduction: 30% Reduction
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Innovation in Design : Potable Reduction or Process Water
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Innovation in Design: Education CreditFor more inormation on LEED credit specics visit the USGBC LEED web site athttps://www.usgbc.org
ACCUMULATED UTILITY RATE SAVINGS PER CCF OF WATER SAVINGS1 CCF = 100 CF = 748 GALLONS
$-$20$40$60$80$100$120$140$160$1802007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
YEAR
        $
POTABLE WATERSANITARY SEWERTOTAL SAVINGS
 
city green building 
3
Seattle Public Utilities provides a 10%reduction in annual commercial stormwaterees or projects that are shown to meetstormwater best management practice (BMP)and reduce rainwater runo rom their site.
Incentives
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Harvest sources:
Depending on systemtypes, this can consist o a variety o sources including rootops, drill aprons,or drainage pipes rom building xtures.Sources can also include rootops andcollection areas rom neighboringbuildings.
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Collection systems:
Collectionsystems include piping, inlets, or otherconveyance needed to route harvestedwater rom harvest sources to the storagesystem. This can range rom conventionalroo drains to double interior mechanicalpiping systems.
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Initial Water Quality Treatment:
Pre-storage treatment is used to divert debris
Water Harvest System Design
Water Harvest SystemSchematic, Image courtesyo Mayy Engineering.
Harvest System Components
Both rainwater and greywater harvestsystems typically consist o the ollowingcomponents:and/or rst ows which typically containthe greatest concentration o rootoppollutants prior to entering the storagesystem, and to keep leaves and otherlarger debris rom entering and cloggingthe system.
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Storage system:
Storage systems can beconstructed rom a variety o materialsand placed in various locations. Thesesystems can include tanks, pipes, andenclosed portions o buildings-above orbelow ground level. Materials includeunderground concrete and berglass,partial and above ground plastic, andenclosed basement structures.

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