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Vol 4 - Environ. Sci-Eze

Vol 4 - Environ. Sci-Eze

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Published by wilolud9822
The exchangeable cations and anionic pollutants of Okpoka-Woji River serving as a sink for
effluents of industries located in the vicinity within the Trans-Amadi industrial area were
carried out. Sediment samples were collected from six sampling stations located along the
channel for the assessment of exchangeable cations namely calcium, magnesium, potassium,
and sodium and nitrite, nitrate, ammonia, ammonium, sulphate, sulphite and phosphate. The
mean values for the exchangeable cations namely calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium
ranged from 387.56 to 1775.78mg/kg; 2093.67 to 4517.38mg/kg; 134.27 to 1393.49mg/kg and
1140.87 to 8293mg/kg respectively. The mean values for nitrate, nitrite, ammonia and
ammonium varied from 49.44 to 98.97mg/kg, 45.94 to 73.44mg/kg, 13.55 to 27.30mg/kg and
14.33 to 28.87mg/kg respectively. Sulphate, sulphite and phosphate mean values ranged from
1492.17 to 9389.58mg/kg, 1243.47 to 7062.25mg/kg and 3.13 to 8.01mg/kg respectively. The
work showed that the river is polluted by theses parameters from the activities of industries
operating in the area.
The exchangeable cations and anionic pollutants of Okpoka-Woji River serving as a sink for
effluents of industries located in the vicinity within the Trans-Amadi industrial area were
carried out. Sediment samples were collected from six sampling stations located along the
channel for the assessment of exchangeable cations namely calcium, magnesium, potassium,
and sodium and nitrite, nitrate, ammonia, ammonium, sulphate, sulphite and phosphate. The
mean values for the exchangeable cations namely calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium
ranged from 387.56 to 1775.78mg/kg; 2093.67 to 4517.38mg/kg; 134.27 to 1393.49mg/kg and
1140.87 to 8293mg/kg respectively. The mean values for nitrate, nitrite, ammonia and
ammonium varied from 49.44 to 98.97mg/kg, 45.94 to 73.44mg/kg, 13.55 to 27.30mg/kg and
14.33 to 28.87mg/kg respectively. Sulphate, sulphite and phosphate mean values ranged from
1492.17 to 9389.58mg/kg, 1243.47 to 7062.25mg/kg and 3.13 to 8.01mg/kg respectively. The
work showed that the river is polluted by theses parameters from the activities of industries
operating in the area.

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Published by: wilolud9822 on Jul 19, 2010
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36
Continental J. Environmental Sciences 4: 36- 43, 2010©Wilolud Journals, 2010ECODYNAMICS OF EXCHANGEABLE CATIONS AND ANIONIC POLLUTANTS OF A NIGER DELTARIVER SEDIMENT RECEIVING INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS.Eze, V.C. and G.C. OkpokwasiliDepartment of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, NigeriaAbstractThe exchangeable cations and anionic pollutants of Okpoka-Woji River serving as a sink foreffluents of industries located in the vicinity within the Trans-Amadi industrial area werecarried out. Sediment samples were collected from six sampling stations located along thechannel for the assessment of exchangeable cations namely calcium, magnesium, potassium,and sodium and nitrite, nitrate, ammonia, ammonium, sulphate, sulphite and phosphate. Themean values for the exchangeable cations namely calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodiumranged from 387.56 to 1775.78mg/kg; 2093.67 to 4517.38mg/kg; 134.27 to 1393.49mg/kg and1140.87 to 8293mg/kg respectively. The mean values for nitrate, nitrite, ammonia andammonium varied from 49.44 to 98.97mg/kg, 45.94 to 73.44mg/kg, 13.55 to 27.30mg/kg and14.33 to 28.87mg/kg respectively. Sulphate, sulphite and phosphate mean values ranged from1492.17 to 9389.58mg/kg, 1243.47 to 7062.25mg/kg and 3.13 to 8.01mg/kg respectively. Thework showed that the river is polluted by theses parameters from the activities of industriesoperating in the area.KEYWORDS: Ecodynamics, exchangeable cations, anionic pollutants, sediments, industrialeffluents, Niger Delta RiverINTRODUCTIONOne of the most important characteristics of bottom sediments is their ability to exchange cations with thesurrounding aquatic medium. Cation exchange capacity measures the capacity of a solid, such as sediment to sorbcations. It varies with pH and salt concentration. Furthermore, because of their capacity to sorb and release hydrogenions, sediments have an important pH buffering effects in some waters. Ion exchange has been seen as one of themost important chemical phenomenon by which diagenetic changes occur after terrestrial sediments are deposited inthe marine environment. It has been observed that variations in the concentrations of potassium and magnesiumaffect diagenetic changes (Parashiva
et al
, 1972; Manahan, 2001).Sediments are important source of nutrients in many water bodies and nutrient loads in many ways result from thewaters where sediments are more easily disturbed by fractions of nutrients from the sediments enter the watercolumn under reducing conditions. These nutrients cause eutrophication (Kiely, 1998).Eutrophication is the enrichment of waters by inorganic plant nutrients. The nutrients are usually nitrogen andphosphorus and these result in an increase in primary productivity. This is artificial enrichment which has beentermed cultural eutrophication. Cultural eutrophication is unnatural and can pose danger to the human societies,though its occurrence is as a result of human activities. Cultural eutrophication causes pollution of aquaticecosystem leading to the death of aquatic lives such as the plants, fishes and other aquatic organisms that make useof oxygen, thus reducing the recreational value of the lake (Joanne
et al
.,
 
2007).There are a number of factors affecting the occurrence of eutrophication, firstly, the nutrient or trophic status of thewater body; secondly, the characteristics of the water body example size, water residence time and thirdly, itssusceptibility to temperature and oxygen stratification and whether it is a monomeric or dimictic lake (Kiely, 1998;Purcel, 2005). The degree of productivity can be classified according to the annual mean level of phosphate enteringa system and the annual mean production of plant growth in the form of chlorophyll-a.The study was carried out to assess the status of exchangeable ctaions and anionic pollution of the river sedimentand their relationship with the industrial discharges over a period of time.
 
37
Eze, V.C. and G.C. Okpokwasili: Continental J. Environmental Sciences 4: 36- 43, 2010MATERIALS AND METHODSStudy AreaThe Okpoka - Woji River is situated in the coastal environment of the Niger Delta. It arises from the bifurcation tothe left of the Okpoka River, which drains into bonny river. The area has a mean water depth of 4.8m, which is tidaland gradually transits from fresh to the salt water at the head. The fresh water biotope flows unidirectionallydownstream from the Rumuodara swamp forest transversing Port Harcourt - Aba Express Road Bridge throughRumuogba (Mini-Okoro Police Station) where tidal effects begin, hence the beginning of the incursion of salt water.(Figure1).
Eliaham East - WestRumudara
Mgbues
 
iliau
Port H.arcourt / Aba
Road
Expressway
E
 
a
 
s
 
t
 
W
 
e
 
s
 
t
 
R
 
o
 
a
 
d
 
Road
UmurouRumuogbaOld Aba Road
 
Trans A
 
madi RoadRumuobiakaniWoji
 
Oginigba134
 
5
 
2Trans Amadi -UmurouRoadAbattoirCreek
 
Fed Coll.Okujagu
Source: Street Guide of Port Harcourt by SPDC 1986
 
Scale
0500mExpresswayMajor RoadRivers / CreeksLegend
Fig.1: Map of Woji Creek showing the sampling stations
 
6
Okwuru AmaOkujagu
 A  b  u l   o m a R  o a d 
Trans
 AmadiRoad
Trans AmadiIndustrial Area
 
 l   e l   e n w o
 
   O    k   p   o    k   a   R   i   v   e   r
 
38
Eze, V.C. and G.C. Okpokwasili: Continental J. Environmental Sciences 4: 36- 43, 2010Collection of Sediment SamplesSediment samples were collected from the river at the discharge points once in a month from April 2001- March2002. The sediment samples were collected using soil grab and were put in sterile black polythene bags. All thesamples were analyzed immediately on reaching the laboratory.Chemical ReagentsChemical reagents used in the study were of analytical grade and were products of BDH chemicals, Poole’s,England, Sigma Chemical Company, St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.A and Hach Company Ltd. Colorado, U.S.A.Determination of Exchangeable CationsThe method for the determination was adopted from APHA (1998). The sediment samples were first extracted usingIN ammonium acetate solution. This was done by weighing 5g of sieved air dried samples and adding to 30ml of theextracting solution in a tube. This was shaken on a mechanical shaker for two hours. They were then centrifuged forfive minutes and the supernatant carefully decanted into a 100ml volumetric flask. This was then made up to themark with the extracting solution. The exchangeable cations of the extract were determined using Unicam AtomicAbsorption Spectrophotometer, Model 969.Determination of the AnionsThe anions determined were nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, ammonium, sulphate, phosphate.The nitrate was determined using the Cadmium reduction method after extraction with distilled water while thenitrite was determined using the diazotization, NED rapid method. The method of nitrate extraction in the sedimentwas employed for nitrite. The Nessler reaction method was employed for the determination of ammonia afterextraction with water. The Ascorbic acid method was used for the determination of phosphate after extraction usingBray No. 1 solution. The Barium chloride (turbidimetric) method was employed in the determination of sulphateafter extraction using Morgan’s solution. The method used for determination of sulphate was the Iodimetric titrationmethod. The methods for the determination of the anions were adapted from APHA (1998).Statistical AnalysisThe statistical tools used were analysis of variance (ANOVA) and standard deviation adapted from Agwung-Fobellah (2007).RESULTSThe changes in the exchangeable cations namely calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium are shown in Figures2a to 2d. It was generally observed that the mean values for the exchangeable cations were higher in the rainy seasonmonths than in the dry season months. The ANOVA, P > 0.05 showed that there was no significant difference in themean values between the rainy and dry season months for calcium and sodium. However the ANOVA, P < 0.05showed that there was significant difference in the mean values between the rainy and dry season months formagnesium and potassium. The ANOVA P > 0.05 showed that there was no significant difference in the meanvalues among the stations for potassium. However the ANOVA, P < 0.05 shows that there was significant differencein the mean values for other exchangeable cations.

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