Continental J. Environmental Sciences 4: 36- 43, 2010©Wilolud Journals, 2010ECODYNAMICS OF EXCHANGEABLE CATIONS AND ANIONIC POLLUTANTS OF A NIGER DELTARIVER SEDIMENT RECEIVING INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS.Eze, V.C. and G.C. OkpokwasiliDepartment of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, NigeriaAbstractThe exchangeable cations and anionic pollutants of Okpoka-Woji River serving as a sink foreffluents of industries located in the vicinity within the Trans-Amadi industrial area werecarried out. Sediment samples were collected from six sampling stations located along thechannel for the assessment of exchangeable cations namely calcium, magnesium, potassium,and sodium and nitrite, nitrate, ammonia, ammonium, sulphate, sulphite and phosphate. Themean values for the exchangeable cations namely calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodiumranged from 387.56 to 1775.78mg/kg; 2093.67 to 4517.38mg/kg; 134.27 to 1393.49mg/kg and1140.87 to 8293mg/kg respectively. The mean values for nitrate, nitrite, ammonia andammonium varied from 49.44 to 98.97mg/kg, 45.94 to 73.44mg/kg, 13.55 to 27.30mg/kg and14.33 to 28.87mg/kg respectively. Sulphate, sulphite and phosphate mean values ranged from1492.17 to 9389.58mg/kg, 1243.47 to 7062.25mg/kg and 3.13 to 8.01mg/kg respectively. Thework showed that the river is polluted by theses parameters from the activities of industriesoperating in the area.KEYWORDS: Ecodynamics, exchangeable cations, anionic pollutants, sediments, industrialeffluents, Niger Delta RiverINTRODUCTIONOne of the most important characteristics of bottom sediments is their ability to exchange cations with thesurrounding aquatic medium. Cation exchange capacity measures the capacity of a solid, such as sediment to sorbcations. It varies with pH and salt concentration. Furthermore, because of their capacity to sorb and release hydrogenions, sediments have an important pH buffering effects in some waters. Ion exchange has been seen as one of themost important chemical phenomenon by which diagenetic changes occur after terrestrial sediments are deposited inthe marine environment. It has been observed that variations in the concentrations of potassium and magnesiumaffect diagenetic changes (Parashiva
, 1972; Manahan, 2001).Sediments are important source of nutrients in many water bodies and nutrient loads in many ways result from thewaters where sediments are more easily disturbed by fractions of nutrients from the sediments enter the watercolumn under reducing conditions. These nutrients cause eutrophication (Kiely, 1998).Eutrophication is the enrichment of waters by inorganic plant nutrients. The nutrients are usually nitrogen andphosphorus and these result in an increase in primary productivity. This is artificial enrichment which has beentermed cultural eutrophication. Cultural eutrophication is unnatural and can pose danger to the human societies,though its occurrence is as a result of human activities. Cultural eutrophication causes pollution of aquaticecosystem leading to the death of aquatic lives such as the plants, fishes and other aquatic organisms that make useof oxygen, thus reducing the recreational value of the lake (Joanne
2007).There are a number of factors affecting the occurrence of eutrophication, firstly, the nutrient or trophic status of thewater body; secondly, the characteristics of the water body example size, water residence time and thirdly, itssusceptibility to temperature and oxygen stratification and whether it is a monomeric or dimictic lake (Kiely, 1998;Purcel, 2005). The degree of productivity can be classified according to the annual mean level of phosphate enteringa system and the annual mean production of plant growth in the form of chlorophyll-a.The study was carried out to assess the status of exchangeable ctaions and anionic pollution of the river sedimentand their relationship with the industrial discharges over a period of time.