Francis turbine ...named after James Bichens Francis. It is a reaction type of turbine frommedium high to medium low heads and medium small to medium large quantities of water.
aplan turbine ...named after Dr. Victor
aplan. It is a reaction type of turbine for low heads andlarge quantities of flow.
According to action of water on the moving blades:
Impulse turbine-Pelton turbine
The pressure of liquid does not change while flowing through the rotor of the machine. In Impulse Turbines pressurechange occur only in the nozzles of the machine. One such example of impulse turbine is Pelton Wheel.
Reaction turbine- Francis turbine,
aplan and propeller turbines
The pressure of liquid changes while it flows through the rotor of the machine. The change in fluid velocity andreduction in its pressure causes a reaction on the turbine blades; this is where from the name Reaction Turbine mayhave been derived. Francis and
aplan Turbines fall in the category of Reaction Turbines.
According to direction of flow of water in the runner:
Tangential flow turbines (Pelton turbine) the water strikes the runner tangential to the path of rotation.
Radial flow turbine (no more used)
Axial flow turbine (
aplan turbine) water flows parallel to the axis of the turbine shaft.
Mixed (radial and axial) flow turbine (Francis turbine) the water enters the blades radially andcomes out axially, parallel to the turbine shaft. Modem Francis turbines have mixed flowrunners.
According to the disposition of the turbine shaft:
Turbine shaft may be either vertical or horizontal. In modern practice, Pelton turbines usuallyhave horizontal shafts whereas the rest, especially the large units, have vertical shafts.
According to specific speed:
The specific speed of a turbine is defined as the speed of a geometrically similar turbine thatwould develop
. All geometrically similar turbines (irrespective of the sizes)will have the same specific speeds when operating under the same head
Where,N = the normal working speed,