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Hydraulic turbine

Hydraulic turbine

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Published by Ram Krishna Singh

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Published by: Ram Krishna Singh on Jul 20, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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11/03/2012

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Hydraulic turbine
Introduction
Fluid machines are the machines that convert the fluid energy to mechanical/electrical energy or viceversa.Hydraulic turbine uses the potential and kinetic energy of water and converts into usable mechanicalwork. In other words, hydraulic turbine is a 
 prime mover that uses the energy of flowing water and converts it into the mechanical energy (in the form of rotation of the runner).
 Pump adds energy to fluid while turbine extracts energy from fluid. The mechanical energy thusproduced is used to run an electric generator which is directly coupled to the shaft of hydraulic turbine.The hydraulic turbines are also known as water turbines since the medium used in them is water.Hydro power is a conventional renewable source of energy which is clean, free from pollution andgenerally has no harmful effect on environment. However following factors are major obstacles in theutilization of hydropower resources.
y
 
L
arge investment
y
 
L
ong gestation period, and
y
 
Increased cost of power transmission
R
eaction turbines
Reaction turbines are acted on by water,which changes pressure as it moves through the turbine andgives up its energy. They must be encased to contain the water pressure (or suction), or they must befully submerged in the water flow.Newton's third lawdescribes the transfer of energy for reaction turbines.Most water turbines in use are reaction turbines. They are used in low and medium head applications. Inreaction turbine pressure drop occurs in both fixed and moving blades.
Impulse turbines
Impulse turbines change thevelocityof a water jet. The jet impinges on the turbine's curved bladeswhich change the direction of the flow. The resulting change in momentum (impulse) causes a force onthe turbine blades. Since the turbine is spinning, the force acts through a distance (work) and thediverted water flow is left with diminished energy.
 
Prior to hitting the turbine blades, the water's pressure (potential energy) is converted tokinetic energy  by anozzleand focused on the turbine. No pressure change occurs at the turbine blades, and theturbine doesn't require a housing for operation.Newton's second lawdescribes the transfer of energy for impulse turbines.Impulse turbines are most often used in very high head applications.
TURB
INE EFFICIENCY A
T
DIFFE
R
EN
T
PA
RT
FLOW CONDI
T
IONS
Class
ific
a
tion
1.
According to the head and quantity of water available
 
Impulse turbine
...requires high head and small quantity of flow.
 
R
eaction turbine
...requires low head and high rate of flow, medium head and medium flow.
2
.
According to the name of the originator:
 
 
Pelton turbine ...named after
L
ester Allen Pelton of California (U.S.A). It is an impulse type of turbine and is used for high head and low discharge.
 
 
Francis turbine ...named after James Bichens Francis. It is a reaction type of turbine frommedium high to medium low heads and medium small to medium large quantities of water.
 
K
aplan turbine ...named after Dr. Victor
K
aplan. It is a reaction type of turbine for low heads andlarge quantities of flow.
3
.
According to action of water on the moving blades:
 
 
Impulse turbine-Pelton turbine
The pressure of liquid does not change while flowing through the rotor of the machine. In Impulse Turbines pressurechange occur only in the nozzles of the machine. One such example of impulse turbine is Pelton Wheel.
 
Reaction turbine- Francis turbine,
K
aplan and propeller turbines
The pressure of liquid changes while it flows through the rotor of the machine. The change in fluid velocity andreduction in its pressure causes a reaction on the turbine blades; this is where from the name Reaction Turbine mayhave been derived. Francis and
K
aplan Turbines fall in the category of Reaction Turbines.
4
.
According to direction of flow of water in the runner:
 
 
Tangential flow turbines (Pelton turbine) the water strikes the runner tangential to the path of rotation.
 
Radial flow turbine (no more used)
 
Axial flow turbine (
K
aplan turbine) water flows parallel to the axis of the turbine shaft.
 
Mixed (radial and axial) flow turbine (Francis turbine) the water enters the blades radially andcomes out axially, parallel to the turbine shaft. Modem Francis turbines have mixed flowrunners.
5
.
According to the disposition of the turbine shaft:
 Turbine shaft may be either vertical or horizontal. In modern practice, Pelton turbines usuallyhave horizontal shafts whereas the rest, especially the large units, have vertical shafts.
6
.
According to specific speed:
The specific speed of a turbine is defined as the speed of a geometrically similar turbine thatwould develop
1
kW under 
1
m head 
. All geometrically similar turbines (irrespective of the sizes)will have the same specific speeds when operating under the same head

 Where,N = the normal working speed,

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