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Minor Losses in pipes

Minor Losses in pipes



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Published by Ram Krishna Singh

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Published by: Ram Krishna Singh on Jul 20, 2010
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Minor Losses in pipes
Losses due to the local disturbances of the flow in the conduits such as changes incross section, projecting gaskets, elbows, valves and similar items are called minorlosses. In case of a very long pipe, these losses are usually insignificant incomparison to the fluid friction in the length considered. But In case of short pipes,these minor losses may actually be major losses such as in suction pipe of a pumpwith strainer and foot valves.Minor loss in diverging flow is much larger than that in converging flow. Minor lossesgenerally increase with an increase in the geometric distortion of the flow. Thoughminor losses are usually confined to a very short length of path, the effects may notdisappear for a considerable distance downstream. It is insignificant in case of laminar flow.Minor loss is generally express in one of the two ways
In terms of minor loss factor K 
In terms length, equivalent to a certain length of straight pipe, usuallyexpressed in terms of number of pipe diameter.
Head loss at entrance:
Referring to the fig. as fluid from reservoir enters the pipe, the streamline tends toconverge, so at B there is maximum velocity and minimum pressure which is in thestate of turbulence but has very little forward motion. Between B and C fluid is in a
Lecturer: Dr. Rajendra Shrestha. Note prepared by Ram Krishna Singh.
very disturbed condition because the stream expands and the velocity decreaseswhile the pressure rises. From C to D the flow is normal.Loss of energy at entrance is distributed along the length AC. Increases turbulenceand vortex motion in this section of the pipe causes much greater friction losscompared to the corresponding length of pipe where flow is normal as shown indiagram.Of the total loss, a portion of h’ would be due to the normal pipe friction. Hence thedifference between this and the total loss is the value of extra loss at occurs at theentrance. The loss of head at the entrance is given by
= k 
where ,v = mean velocity of the pipek
= loss coefficient whose value depends on the condition at the entrance of the pipe. The entrance loss is caused primarily by the turbulence created by the enlargementof the stream after it passes through the section of vena contraction, which isformed immediately after the edge of the entering mouth.Values of the entrance loss coefficients have been determined experimentally. If the entrance to the pipe is well rounded, then there is no contraction of the streamentering and the coefficient of loss is correspondingly small.For a square edged entrance, as shown in fig. ke has a value of around 0.5Reentrant tube produces maximum contraction of the entering stream becausestreamlines come from around the wall of the pipe as well as directly from fluid infront of the entrance. The loss coefficients for reentrant tubes vary depending uponthickness of pipe wall and how far pipe is projected , for very thin tubes ke =0.8
Lecturer: Dr. Rajendra Shrestha. Note prepared by Ram Krishna Singh.
Loss of head at submerged discharge:
When a fluid with a velocity V is discharged from the end of a pipe into a closedtank which is so large that the velocity within it is negligible, the entire kineticenergy is dissipated. Hence the discharge loss is
’ = V
 The discharge loss coefficient is 1.0 under all conditions. Only way to reduce thisloss is to reduce the value of V by means of diverging tube as in the case of drafttube in reaction turbine.As contrasted with entrance loss, it must be noted that discharge loss occurs afterthe fluid leaves the pipe, while entrance loss occurs after fluid enters the pipe.
Loss of head due to sudden contraction:
Lecturer: Dr. Rajendra Shrestha. Note prepared by Ram Krishna Singh.

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