Minor Losses in pipes
Losses due to the local disturbances of the flow in the conduits such as changes incross section, projecting gaskets, elbows, valves and similar items are called minorlosses. In case of a very long pipe, these losses are usually insignificant incomparison to the fluid friction in the length considered. But In case of short pipes,these minor losses may actually be major losses such as in suction pipe of a pumpwith strainer and foot valves.Minor loss in diverging flow is much larger than that in converging flow. Minor lossesgenerally increase with an increase in the geometric distortion of the flow. Thoughminor losses are usually confined to a very short length of path, the effects may notdisappear for a considerable distance downstream. It is insignificant in case of laminar flow.Minor loss is generally express in one of the two ways
In terms of minor loss factor K
In terms length, equivalent to a certain length of straight pipe, usuallyexpressed in terms of number of pipe diameter.
Head loss at entrance:
Referring to the fig. as fluid from reservoir enters the pipe, the streamline tends toconverge, so at B there is maximum velocity and minimum pressure which is in thestate of turbulence but has very little forward motion. Between B and C fluid is in a
Lecturer: Dr. Rajendra Shrestha. Note prepared by Ram Krishna Singh.