and in Europe in the Brittany region of France and the Galithia region of Spain. Some suggestthat Celts also lived in other areas of Europe. Paleo-pagan Druids were, according thefragmentary records available, the priesthood of Celtic society. As Celtic Neo-pagan historianChristina Oakley puts it,The written sources [available to us] say that the Druids were the priesthood of the Pagan Celts, and that they were the keepers of the wisdom and knowledge.They knew history, science, and poetry. They were judges, lawgivers, andadvisors to kings. They were magicians and `shamans'. It was said that theyknew the inner meanings of the landscape, could read the stars, and couldcommune with the spirit of the land.
How much of this image of paleo-pagan druids is true is unknown. Most of the records availableare Christian records, others are Roman, none of them are Celtic - the history and culture of ancient pagan Celts was entirely oral - in fact, Bards, who were also Druids, were the lore-keepers, passing on the knowledge from generation to generation. As a result, there are onlyfragmentary accounts available. Some of these record what seem to be fairly impartial accounts,others record clearly biased accounts. Based on all of these accounts, and on some poetry andoral traditions that remain extant, this view of Celtic Druids seems warranted. They wereassociated with wisdom, scholarship, natural sciences, astronomy, magic, mysticism, law,history, and education. They were part of the larger social order, always working in conjunctionwith, rather than in opposition to, the social order. The Druid RevivalThe second historical source for contemporary Celtic Neo-Paganism is that of theeighteenth century Druidry Revival movement. According to a bibliography published in 1744in Europe, over the period of 1514-1744, two hundred and sixty-one authors wrote works onCeltic Druidry. This persistent interest in Druidry by British and European scholars andintellectuals became especially manifest in 1717 with the founding of the philosophicalorganization An Druidh Uileach Braithreachas (A.D.U.B.), which translates as "The Druid Circle