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Fundamentals of Nursing

Fundamentals of Nursing

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Published by Gilbert Garcia

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Published by: Gilbert Garcia on Jul 22, 2010
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1
FUNDAMENTALS OF NURSING
OVERVIEWI.
 
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK of NURSING PRACTICEA.
 
NursingB.
 
Concepts of Health and IllnessC.
 
Concepts of StressD.
 
HomeostasisE.
 
AdaptationF.
 
Adaptation to Stress  Physiological Response (Hans Selye)G.
 
Physiologic Indicators of StressII.
 
COPING STRATGIES (COPING MECHANISMS)A.
 
2 Types of Coping StrategiesB.
 
Relaxation TechniquesIII.
 
PSYCHOLOGICAL RESPONSEA.
 
Task  Oriented BehaviorsB.
 
Defense MechanismsC.
 
Common Defense MechanismsIV.
 
TYPES of NURSING DIAGNOSESA.
 
Formulating the Nursing DiagnosisB.
 
Collaborative ProblemsV.
 
METHODS USED for ASSESSMENTA.
 
Collection of Data: Objective and SubjectiveVI.
 
DOCUMENTING and REPORTINGA.
 
Guidelines for Good Documentation and ReportingB.
 
DocumentationC.
 
Documentation SystemsD.
 
Nursing Care Plan (NCP)E.
 
KARDEXF.
 
Nursing Discharge / Referral SummariesVII.
 
PHYSICAL EXAMINATIONA.
 
PurposesB.
 
Preparation of ExaminationC.
 
Order of ExaminationD.
 
Skills in Physical AssessmentE.
 
Examples of Adventitious Breath SoundsVIII.
 
THE COMMUNICATION PROCESSA.
 
Modes of CommunicationB.
 
Verbal CommunicationC.
 
Nonverbal CommunicationD.
 
Factors Influencing the Communication ProcessE.
 
Therapeutic Communication TechniqueF.
 
Barriers to CommunicationG.
 
Phases of the Helping RelationshipPRINCIPLES and PRACTICE of NURSING CAREIX.
 
PRINCIPLES of ASEPSIS and INFECTION CONTROLA.
 
Chain of InfectionB.
 
Modes of TransmissionC.
 
Course of InfectionD.
 
InflammationE.
 
Immune ResponseF.
 
Nosocomial InfectionG.
 
Factors Increasing Susceptibility to InfectionH.
 
Diagnostic Tests Used to Screen for InfectionX.
 
THEORIES OF PAINA.
 
Specific TheoryB.
 
Pattern TheoryC.
 
Gate Control TheoryD.
 
Current Developments in Pain TheoryXI.
 
TYPES OF PAINA.
 
Acute PainB.
 
Chronic PainXII.
 
PAIN ASSESSMENTA.
 
TOOLS/INSTRUMENTS USEDB.
 
A B C D E method of pain assessmentC.
 
P Q R S T assessment for pain perceptionD.
 
Pain History
 
2
 
ADMINISTRATION OF MEDICATIONSXIII.
 
DRUG NOMENCLATURE and FORMSA.
 
NamesB.
 
ClassificationC.
 
FormsD.
 
Types of Drug ActionsE.
 
Principles in Administering MedicationsXIV.
 
BASIC HUMAN NEEDSA.
 
Abraham MaslowB.
 
Maslows Characteristics of a SelfActualized PersonXV.
 
MEETING OXYGENATION NEEDSA.
 
OxygenationB.
 
Cardiovascular PhysiologyC.
 
Structure and FunctionD.
 
Steps in the Process of OxygenationE.
 
XVI.
 
MEETING NUTRITIONAL NEEDSA.
 
Principles of NutritionB.
 
NutrientsXVII.
 
MEETING URINARY ELIMINATION NEEDSA.
 
Normal Urinary FunctionB.
 
Common Assessment FindingsXVIII.
 
URINARY CATHETERIZATIONA.
 
PurposesB.
 
Necessary Equipment for CatheterizationC.
 
Preparation of the PatientD.
 
Retention or Indwelling Catheter (Foley)E.
 
Procedure for InsertionF.
 
Caring for the Patient with an Indwelling CatheterG.
 
Removing the Indwelling Catheter and Aftercare of the PatientXIX.
 
MEETING BOWEL ELIMINATION NEEDSA.
 
Factors that Influence Bowel EliminationB.
 
Characteristics of Normal StoolC.
 
Common Bowel Elimination ProblemsXX.
 
TYPES of ENEMASA.
 
CleansingB.
 
Oil-RetentionC.
 
CarminativeD.
 
AstringentXXI.
 
NASOGASTRIC and INTESTINAL TUBESA.
 
Nasogastric TubesB.
 
Intestinal TubesXXII.
 
LOSS AND GRIEFA.
 
LossB.
 
Grieving Process (Theories of Grief, Dying, and Mourning)C.
 
Anticipatory Grief D.
 
Complications of BereavementE.
 
Symptoms of Normal Grief F.
 
Nursing Health Promotion (to facilitate mourning)
1.
 
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK of NURSING PRACTICE
 A.
 
Nursing
As by the INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF NURSES (ICN, 1973) as written by Virginia Henderson: The unique function of the nurseis to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health. Its recovery, or to apeaceful death that the client would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength, will or knowledge.Help the client gain independence as rapidly as possible.
1.
 
CONCEPTUAL AND THEORETICAL MODELS OF NURSING PRACTICETheorist Description
FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE
 
y
 
Developed the first theory of nursing.
y
 
Focused on changing and manipulating the
environment
in order to put the patientin the best possible conditions for nature to act.
 
HILDEGARD PEPLAU
 
y
 
Introduced the Interpersonal Model.
y
 
She defined nursing as a therapeutic, interpersonal process which strives to develop
 
3
 
a
nurse-patient relationship
in which the nurse serves as a resource person,counselor and surrogate.
 
FAYE ABDELLAH
 
y
 
Defined nursing as having a
problem-solving approach
 
, with key nursing problemsrelated to health needs of people; developed list 21 nursing problem areas
 
IDA JEAN ORLANDO
 
y
 
Developed the three elements  client behavior, nurse reaction and nurse action compose the nursing situation. She observed that the nurse provide direct assistance tomeet an immediate need for help in order to avoid or to alleviate distress orhelplessness.
 
MYRA LEVINE
 
y
 
Described the
Four Conservation Principles
.
1.
 
conservation of energy
 2
.
 
conservation of structured integrity
 3
.
 
conservation of personal integrity
 4
.
 
conservation of social integrity
 
DOROTHY JOHNSON
y
 
Developed the
B
ehavioral System Model
.1.
 
Patients behavior as a system that is a whole with interacting parts2.
 
how the client adapts to illness3.
 
goal of nursing is to reduce so that the client can move more easily throughrecovery.MARTHA ROGERS Conceptualized the
Science of Unitary Human
B
eings
. She asserted that human beingsare more than different from the sum of their parts; the distinctive properties of thewhole are significantly different from those of its parts.DOROTHEA OREM Emphasizes the clients
self care needs
; nursing care becomes necessary when client isunable to fulfill biological, psychological, developmental or social needs.IMOGENE KING Nursing process is defined as dynamic
interpersonal process
between nurse, client andhealth care system.BETTY NEUMAN
Stress reduction
is a goal of system model of nursing practice. Nursing actions are inprimary, secondary or tertiary level of preventionSISTER CALLISTA ROY Presented the
Adaptation Model
. She viewed each person as
a unified bio-psychosocialsystem
in constant interaction with a changing environment. The goal of nursing is tohelp the person adapt to changes in physiological needs, self-concept, role function andinterdependent relations during health and illness.LYDIA HALL Introduced the notion that nursing centers around three components:
person(core),pathologic state and treatment(cure) and body(care)
.
 JEAN WATSON Conceptualized the
Human Caring Model
. She emphasized that nursing is theapplication of the art and human science through transpersonal caring transactions tohelp persons achieve mind-body-soul harmony, which generates self-knowledge, self-control, self-care and self-healing.ROSEMARIE RIZZO PARSE Introduced the
Theory of Human
B
ecoming
. She emphasized free choice of personalmeaning in relating to value priorities, co-creating of rhythmical patterns, in exchangewith the environment and contranscending in many dimensions as possibilities unfold.MADELEINE LENINGER Developed the
Transcultural Nursing Model
. She advocated that nursing is a humanisticand scientific mode of helping a client through specific cultural caring processes (culturalvalues, beliefs and practices) to improve or maintain a health condition
2
.
 
ROLES AND FUNCTION OF A NURSE
a.
 
Caregiver
 the caregiver role has traditionally included those activities that assist the client physically and psychologicallywhile preserving the clients dignity. Caregiving encompasses the physical, psychosocial, developmental, culturaland spiritual levels.b.
 
Communicator
  communication is an integral to all nursing roles. Nurses communicate with the client, support persons,other health professionals, and people in the community. In the role of communicator, nurses identify clientproblems and then communicate these verbally or in writing to other members of the health team. The qualityof a nurses communication is an important factor in nursing care.c.
 
Teacher
  as a teacher, the nurse helps clients learn about their health and the health care procedures they need toperform to restore or maintain their health. The nurse assesses the clients learning needs and readiness tolearn, sets specific learning goals in conjunction with the client, enacts teaching strategies and measureslearning.d.
 
Client advocate
 a client advocate acts to protect the client. In this role the nurse may represent the clients needs andwishes to other health professionals, such as relaying the clients wishes for information to the physician. Theyalso assist clients in exercising their rights and help them speak up for themselves.e.
 
Counselor
 counseling is a process of helping a client to recognize and cope with stressful psychologic or social problems,to developed improved interpersonal relationships, and to promote personal growth. It involves providingemotional, intellectual, and psychologic support.f.
 
Change agent
 the nurse acts as a change agent when assisting others, that is, clients, to make modifications in their ownbehavior. Nurses also often act to make changes in a system such as clinical care, if it is not helping a clientreturn to health.g.
 
Leader
 a leader influences others to work together to accomplish a specific goal. The leader role can be employed atdifferent levels; individual client, family, groups of clients, colleagues, or the community. Effective leadership is a

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