, with key nursing problemsrelated to health needs of people; developed list 21 nursing problem areas
IDA JEAN ORLANDO
Developed the three elements client behavior, nurse reaction and nurse action compose the nursing situation. She observed that the nurse provide direct assistance tomeet an immediate need for help in order to avoid or to alleviate distress orhelplessness.
Four Conservation Principles
conservation of energy
conservation of structured integrity
conservation of personal integrity
conservation of social integrity
ehavioral System Model
Patients behavior as a system that is a whole with interacting parts2.
how the client adapts to illness3.
goal of nursing is to reduce so that the client can move more easily throughrecovery.MARTHA ROGERS Conceptualized the
Science of Unitary Human
. She asserted that human beingsare more than different from the sum of their parts; the distinctive properties of thewhole are significantly different from those of its parts.DOROTHEA OREM Emphasizes the clients
self care needs
; nursing care becomes necessary when client isunable to fulfill biological, psychological, developmental or social needs.IMOGENE KING Nursing process is defined as dynamic
between nurse, client andhealth care system.BETTY NEUMAN
is a goal of system model of nursing practice. Nursing actions are inprimary, secondary or tertiary level of preventionSISTER CALLISTA ROY Presented the
. She viewed each person as
a unified bio-psychosocialsystem
in constant interaction with a changing environment. The goal of nursing is tohelp the person adapt to changes in physiological needs, self-concept, role function andinterdependent relations during health and illness.LYDIA HALL Introduced the notion that nursing centers around three components:
person(core),pathologic state and treatment(cure) and body(care)
JEAN WATSON Conceptualized the
Human Caring Model
. She emphasized that nursing is theapplication of the art and human science through transpersonal caring transactions tohelp persons achieve mind-body-soul harmony, which generates self-knowledge, self-control, self-care and self-healing.ROSEMARIE RIZZO PARSE Introduced the
Theory of Human
. She emphasized free choice of personalmeaning in relating to value priorities, co-creating of rhythmical patterns, in exchangewith the environment and contranscending in many dimensions as possibilities unfold.MADELEINE LENINGER Developed the
Transcultural Nursing Model
. She advocated that nursing is a humanisticand scientific mode of helping a client through specific cultural caring processes (culturalvalues, beliefs and practices) to improve or maintain a health condition
ROLES AND FUNCTION OF A NURSE
the caregiver role has traditionally included those activities that assist the client physically and psychologicallywhile preserving the clients dignity. Caregiving encompasses the physical, psychosocial, developmental, culturaland spiritual levels.b.
communication is an integral to all nursing roles. Nurses communicate with the client, support persons,other health professionals, and people in the community. In the role of communicator, nurses identify clientproblems and then communicate these verbally or in writing to other members of the health team. The qualityof a nurses communication is an important factor in nursing care.c.
as a teacher, the nurse helps clients learn about their health and the health care procedures they need toperform to restore or maintain their health. The nurse assesses the clients learning needs and readiness tolearn, sets specific learning goals in conjunction with the client, enacts teaching strategies and measureslearning.d.
a client advocate acts to protect the client. In this role the nurse may represent the clients needs andwishes to other health professionals, such as relaying the clients wishes for information to the physician. Theyalso assist clients in exercising their rights and help them speak up for themselves.e.
counseling is a process of helping a client to recognize and cope with stressful psychologic or social problems,to developed improved interpersonal relationships, and to promote personal growth. It involves providingemotional, intellectual, and psychologic support.f.
the nurse acts as a change agent when assisting others, that is, clients, to make modifications in their ownbehavior. Nurses also often act to make changes in a system such as clinical care, if it is not helping a clientreturn to health.g.
a leader influences others to work together to accomplish a specific goal. The leader role can be employed atdifferent levels; individual client, family, groups of clients, colleagues, or the community. Effective leadership is a