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Dynamic meteorology

Dynamic meteorology

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LECTURES ON DYNAMICALMETEOROLOGY
Roger K. SmithVersion: December 11, 2007
 
Contents
1 INTRODUCTION 5
1.1 Scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2 EQUILIBRIUM AND STABILITY 93 THE EQUATIONS OF MOTION 16
3.1 Eective gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163.2 The Coriolis force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163.3 Euler’s equation in a rotating coordinate system . . . . . . . . . . . . 183.4 Centripetal acceleration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193.5 The momentum equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203.6 The Coriolis force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203.7 Perturbation pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213.8 Scale analysis of the equation of motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223.9 Coordinate systems and the earth’s sphericity . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233.10 Scale analysis of the equations for middle latitude synoptic systems . 25
4 GEOSTROPHIC FLOWS 28
4.1 The Taylor-Proudman Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304.2 Blocking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344.3 Analogy between blocking and axial Taylor columns . . . . . . . . . . 354.4 Stability of a rotating uid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384.5 Vortex ows: the gradient wind equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384.6 The eects of stratication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414.7 Thermal advection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454.8 The thermodynamic equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464.9 Pressure coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474.10 Thickness advection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484.11 Generalized thermal wind equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
5 FRONTS, EKMAN BOUNDARY LAYERS AND VORTEX FLOWS 54
5.1 Fronts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545.2 Margulesmodel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545.3 Viscous boundary layers: Ekman’s solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 592
 
CONTENTS 
35.4 Vortex boundary layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
6 THE VORTICITY EQUATION FOR A HOMOGENEOUS FLUID 67
6.1 Planetary, or Rossby Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 686.2 Large scale ow over a mountain barrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 746.3 Wind driven ocean currents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 756.4 Topographic waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 796.5 Continental shelf waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
7 THE VORTICITY EQUATION IN A ROTATING STRATIFIEDFLUID 83
7.1 The vorticity equation for synoptic-scale atmospheric motions . . . . 85
8 QUASI-GEOSTROPHIC MOTION 89
8.1 More on the approximated thermodynamic equation . . . . . . . . . . 928.2 The quasi-geostrophic equation for a compressible atmosphere . . . . 938.3 Quasi-geostrophic flow over a bell-shaped mountain . . . . . . . . . . 94
9 SYNOPTIC-SCALE INSTABILITY AND CYCLOGENESIS 99
9.1 The middle latitude westerlies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 999.2 Available potential energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1009.3 Baroclinic instability: the Eady problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1029.4 A two-layer model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1099.4.1 No vertical shear,
= 0, i.e.,
1
=
3
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1149.4.2 No beta effect (
β 
= 0), finite shear (
= 0). . . . . . . . . . . 1149.4.3 The general case,
= 0,
β 
= 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1159.5 The energetics of baroclinic waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1169.6 Interpretation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1179.7 Large amplitude waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1189.8 The role of baroclinic waves in the atmosphere’s general circulation . 119
10 DEVELOPMENT THEORY 120
10.1 The isallobaric wind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12110.2 Conuence and diuence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12110.3 Dines compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12510.4 Sutclies development theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12610.5 The omega equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
11 MORE ON WAVE MOTIONS, FILTERING 134
11.1 The nocturnal low-level jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13611.2 Inertia-gravity waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14011.3 Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

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